Performance Enhancing Drugs

Olympic symbols - Wikipedia
Drugs in sport – how can we make the testing more accurate to ensure that athletes are on an even playing field?

Drug consumption by amateur and professional athletes is a major issue. In 2016, more than 1.81% of athletes tested by the world anti-doping agency had overdosed on drugs. In order to effectively control this growing problem, consistent drug tests have become common in every sport. By taking banned performance drugs it risks peoples place in their team and also gives the team and coach a bad name. One person’s action can lead to the team having a major spiral.

Why do athletes turn to performance enhancing drugs?

A lot of athletes feel a lot of pressure to perform their best for the coaching staff, fans and their team, because of this pressure to meet the expectations of people the athletes turn to performance enhancing drugs. This is why doping tests are being performed to prevent athletes from taking banned substances that can tamper with their health.

When athletes lose their form, they are criticised due to their failures, which leads to stress and anxiety. Many athletes take steroids so as to enhance their performance. However, they might not go for such drugs if they know about the consequences of this decision.

Recreational drugs such as marijuana and cocaine are performance-reducing drugs that negatively affect their physical as well as mental health. While marijuana is now legalised in many states in the US, it is not suitable for professional athletes.

Through doping tests, it’s possible to determine whether or not an athlete takes illegal drugs, after which sports authorities can charge the culprit with bans and fines.

Professional and amateur athletes are expected to compete with others in a fair way and abide by the rules of the game. But, when an athlete consumes steroids to enhance their performance through illegal means, it is no longer a fair playing field for all competing in the game.

Drug testing techniques were introduced in sports to promote fair play. It ensures that no athlete enjoys an unfair advantage over other participants who are trying to win the game without implementing unfair tactics.

What testing is currently in place for seeing who is taking performance enhancing drugs?

Although testing procedures are now in place to deter steroid use among professional and Olympic athletes, new designer drugs constantly become available that can escape detection and put athletes willing to cheat one step ahead of testing efforts. To detect early use of designer steroids and provide more accurate baseline standards for each athlete, testing laboratories store data from each drug testing sample. These samples are then used as reference points for future testing, thereby eliminating the possibility that a person tests positive simply because he or she has naturally elevated levels of testosterone when compared to the general population.

How can we improve this testing to make it more accurate?

These widely used color tests are simple to use, but researchers and legal experts know the results can be questionable. Some reagents turn color when exposed not only to a particular illegal drug, but also to over-the-counter medications and a host of other substances. Also, some illegal drugs, such as BZP and MDMA (commonly referred to as ecstasy), are not detectable with color tests. The researchers developed a fluorometer by making a small black box with a 3-D printer. They then used a low-cost cold cathode lamp (to provide the fluorometer’s excitation light) and powered the system with a rechargeable lithium ion battery. The unit allows investigators to identify powders and other substances using a paper test strip soaked in copper iodide. Certain classes of drugs react with the copper by giving off a fluorescent light signature unique to the drug.

Performance-Enhancing Drugs: A Cheat Sheet - ABC News

What are some side-effects of taking performance enhancing drugs?

At low doses, stimulants can lead to increased perspiration, shaking, inability to focus, and sleep loss, as well as low appetite and dehydration. In higher doses, stimulants can also lead to more severe health effects, such as rapid heart rate and high blood pressure.

 What are the statistics for drug use in sports worldwide?

In one anonymous survey of several thousand world-class amateur athletes, up to 57 percent admitted to using performance-enhancing drugs in the past year, according to a study published in the journal Sports Medicine.

Why does this need to stop?

Having some athletes taking performance enhancing drugs makes it unfair in others participating in the sport and therefore no one is on the same even playing field. Not only does it affect the player taking the drugs but it can have negative effect on the other players in the team and the coach.

What is our solution?

Can earwax give reliable proof of drug use?

Possibly. Forensic science is always innovating in its search for effective methods. Typically, forensic analysis for neuropsychiatric drugs comes from blood and urine samples. But some drugs have such a short half-life that traditional tests aren’t always accurate, while other testing methods—saliva, sweat, hair and nails—can prove unreliable, with a high risk of contamination and a difficult collection process.

In the search for better methods, forensic scientists are now looking at the use of cerumen, commonly called “earwax.” Earwax is secreted from ceruminous glands, essentially a type of sweat gland. A broad range of drugs including ETOH (alcohol), amphetamines, cocaine, methadone, along with psychotropic and antiepileptic (anti-seizure) drugs are found in sweat, often in higher concentrations than in blood. The logic follows that if these substances can be seen in sweat, then they should also show up in cerumen.

In a Brazilian study, cerumen samples were obtained from 17 individuals that used antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs. Many of the drugs tested were found in major concentrations in the sampled cerumen. Phenytoin was detected and quantified in an individual who had stopped using the drug two months prior to the study. Cerumen testing is promising not only for evaluating recent drug use, but also for drug use from previous months.

Familiarity with forensic science and its technological advances isn’t only for the scientific community, but also for the legal community. Trending issues in substance abuse testing are valuable information for both prosecuting and defense attorneys. Earwax may just become part of every criminal attorney’s vernacular.

Do Audiologists Remove Ear Wax?

Laudato Si’

Pope Francis’ encyclical Ladauto Si was written to foster an understanding of Climate Change. How can we relate theological teaching to create a more sustainable world today? 


Laudato Si'

Laudato Si’ was the second encyclical written by Pope Francis about climate change, and the care of our common home. Published on the 18th of June 2015, it critiques people on subjects such as global warming, environmental degradation, consumerism, irresponsible development and much more. The letter calls on people to care for our world.


 steward is a biblical term that refers to a manager who is responsible for the goods and property of another. When God created Earth, he left human kind to be stewards of our world. However over time, sustainability of the Earth has become increasingly compromised because of human activities, which has forced humans to interact with the environment so that it benefits themselves.

Humans are called on by God, to look after our planet. Unfortunately, over time things such as money, land, power have become more important than caring for the planet. So what are some potential solutions to solve this issue and who has already tried to relate theological teachings to create a more sustainable world today.

People who have already tried to solve this issue

Pope Francis

Pope Francis, the current pope, has taken to social media (Twitter), and written the Encyclical Laudato Si’ to foster an understanding of climate change.  Pope Francis said on his Twitter account “we need a new dialogue about how we are shaping our future planet.”

He uses his twitter account to voice his concerns about climate change.

Pope Benedict

Pope Benedict the last pope, took a stand against climate change, promoting renewable energy and calling for a closer communion between catholics and nature


  • At Sunday Mass, there could be an added section about stewardship and creating the world more sustainable
  • Added Stewardship and sustainability sections to Religious Education curriculums for every year
  • Creating more “clean ups” within a community/church.

By Sofia, Laura

Homelessness in Australia

On any given night, over 116,000 people sleep without adequate shelter in Australia. Our task was to find a solution in order to reduce homelessness and provide basic, adequate housing, safety, and security. A majority of people experiencing homelessness long-term in Australia are found in the large cities of SydneyMelbourneBrisbane and Perth. Some of the benefits homeless get are weekly payments of social security benefits can now be made for the most vulnerable recipients, including those who are homeless or at risk of homelessness, however, the number people experiencing homelessness has still been on the rise.


  • Domestic violence
  • According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 42 percent of the clients of specialist homelessness services have experienced family and domestic violence. What this means is that homelessness is a product of many other human rights abuses. 
  • Unemployment
  • For people with little savings, or who are just starting out in the workforce, once unemployed, it is easy to fall into a cycle of poverty. This can cause both short and long-term homelessness.
  • Mental health
  • The stress that comes with homelessness also often increases the chance of mental illness. Living a way of life were you don’t know where your next meal is going to come from brings fear, anxiety, depression, sleeplessness.
  • Disabilities
  • Statistics show that around 1 in 12 people who use specialist homelessness services in Australia have disability. A specialist homeless service is a government funded service to provide accommodation support to people in need which is an effective way to support this minority of homeless people who have disabilities as they are unable to support themselves. 1 in 6 clients of the specialist homeless services with disability seek assistance because of domestic or family violence.
  • Substance Abuse
  • For those experiencing homelessness and mental health problems, turning to harmful drugs or alcohol may seem an easy escape and comfort.


  • In 2016, more than 116,000 people were estimated to be homeless in Australia— and 20% identified as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians
  • About 75% of the increase in the numbers of homeless people was accounted for by people who were born overseas
  • 58% of homeless people were male
  • 21% of the homeless were between the ages of 25 and 34 years
  • 7% of homeless people live on the street,  18% lived in supported housing and 44% lived in overcrowded homes
  • Over 15,800 children younger than 12 years are homeless
  • According to the Australian human rights commission, roughly 1 in 200 Australians find themselves without a safe, secure, or affordable place to sleep

Items people experiencing homelessness need most:

  • Personal hygiene items
  • Socks
  • Food
  • Pet food 
  • Transportation passes 
  • raingear

The Problems

One of the main causes of homelessness is unemployment. Once a person experiencing homelessness is unemployed, it is very difficult to break the cycle.

Almost all firms and businesses require an address before they even consider the candidate as an employee. Those living on the streets don’t have an address and therefore aren’t even considered by employers. Most businesses also won’t accept homeless shelters as an adequate address. One person shared their experience,

“Nowdays when you fill out an application and put your address, they check to see how long you have lived there. I have no address. I gave this shelter’s address. And these jobs, that i was way overqualified for, they would ask me, “Ella T. Grasso Boulevard? Where do you live? Isn’t that a business district?” I knew what they were getting at. But it is the only place I know that is liveable. And then they thank you for your time. It is awful. I’ve lost a lot of jobs this way Every single (job application) asks for an address.”

The second issue, is many people experiencing homelessness who have received job interviews, don’t have hygiene facilities or clean clothes to wear. As a result, many employers won’t consider them even if they are overqualified.

Our Solutions

Applying for Jobs:

We believe that it will become easier for people experiencing homelessness to acquire a job if there are legal regulations instituted that make it illegal for employers to ask for specific addresses. We understand, however, that in some circumstances firms and businesses are looking to hire local candidates. Therefore, it would be legal for employers and contractors to ask for the region of living eg. Electorate of Curtin, but not specific addresses.

Job Interviews:

There are many charities and organizations that deal with homelessness by providing money or food, but very few that help provide people experiencing homelessness with adequate and permanent jobs. Our idea is to create a volunteer service that hires out clean clothes eg. suits, formal attire and offers facilities like showers and haircuts. Employers would be more likely to consider professional-looking candidates. These volunteer organizations could also offer support and advice on what to do and how to appear in a job interview. Once people have stable jobs, it becomes much easier to save money to spend on adequate accommodation.

How can we provide basic housing?

Due to the number of people experiencing homelessness situated in the West Australian Area, government officials have accessed and built low income-based homes to help those people in need. The problem with this idea is, that if you are in a generational line of poverty and people have only a few dollars to spend on food and water, what chance do they have of getting enough money to spend 300$ or morecomfortable living. 

Our Idea:

  1. One building in each state and territory, located around areas with high rates of homelessness.
  2. These buildings provide safe shelter for a variety of prices
  3. $1-$5 – Inspired by Japanese capsule living, features a bed, and a hook for a bag
  4. $5-$10 – Room with bed, shower, toilet
  5. $10-$20 – Room with Bed, Toilet, Shower, small kitchen (with microwave and freezer)
  6. $20-$40 – Room with Kitchen, Aircon, Table, Couch, Bed, Toilet, and Shower (Kitchen includes a microwave, toastie maker, and freezer)
  7. These rooms would be paid per night

Mental Health

As a solution dog shelters could provide dogs as service animals to the homeless shelters as a coping mechanism for various mental health issues or serve as service pets for the disabled. Dogs are often used to reduce stress, anxiety, depression and to make the owner feel less lonely. Interacting with a dog reduces levels of cortisol and it increases the release of oxytocin which eases stress making to owner more relaxed and happy.


Summary of drugs in sport

Drugs in sport have been around for decades, they are most commonly found in high performance sports.

The use of drugs in sport needs to be stamped out. No good comes from cheating, it creates bad atmosphere among team mates, it means selection trials for big events are rigged, it brings a criminal element into sport. Most importantly it damages the bodies of athletes. Performance enhancing drugs can lead to athletes masking pain from injury & damaging joints & muscles for life. The use of hormone based drugs can lead athletes to become infertile & they can never have children of their own. Drugs can lead to addiction, damage to organs and altered mental state.

To help athletes avoid the pathway to drugs we need to cut supply with clear reporting pathways and police involvement. Sporting bodies need to have a tough testing protocol and research needs to be ongoing to identify new masking agents and drugs. KEEP SPORT CLEAN!

Why Athletes use drugs?

  • To help recover from injury fast 
  • To beat other athletes & gain selection in events 
  • Peer pressure 
  • Pressure from coaches, team onwards
  • Corrupt government insisting athletes do, winning world events was that aar important.
  • In error, described drugs that are banned when ill and the doctor was unaware it was a restricted drug.
  • To be faster 
  • To Lose weight 
  • To gain size and muscle tone 
  • Fear of Failure

What is the problem 

Doping, defined as use of drugs or other substances for performance enhancement, has become a very important topic and has been happening in almost every sport and has been discovered in athletes of all ages at every level of competition. People use doping to gain muscles, recover from an injury, increasing body recovery capacity after training, increasing muscle mass and strength, decreasing fat tissue, increasing endurance. Not only is this seen as a form of cheating and unfair to other people competing it that sport, it can also affect the person health for example some of the effects can lead to liver and heart problems, prostate problems and impotence and blood cancer.

 What is causing the problem
  • Drugs coming into Australia letting it be available for people to use 
  • pressure to succeed or win at any cost 
  • pressure to succeed as a nation 
  • pressure from the media and the public to be successful 
  • pressure to be successful in order to gain sponsorship
  • sport is a short career and performers need to make as much money as possible to set themselves up for life
  • improve physical condition (speed and strength) to gain an advantage 
  • boost confidence 
  • reduce recovery time from injury 
  • the belief that other competitors are taking drugs, so without drugs they will not be able to compete equally 
  • Greed to be the best you can be. 

How does this problem affect people in the community? ·

  • makes it unfair for other people who are also competing 
  • makes young people think its ok to take drugs when doing sport
  • Using drugs in sport undermines values like fair play and teamwork
  • drugs in sport also give the specific sport a bad reputation and set a poor example to others.

 How can we make the testing more accurate to ensure that athletes are on an even playing field

Drug testing in sport is a very important topic in today’s world is a hot topic among today’s sporting community and one of the most important things to consider when is its accuracy as the results can effect the results of this type of testing can affect the players reputation and there lively hood the that we can improve the  testing of thees athletes is to directly test the the samples taken against the drugs themselves to get an accurate reading about the drugs being taken.


Why do we need to solve it?

  • Makes a equal and fair playing field for all competitors
  • Effects there reputation/career
  • Effects there family, friends, coaches, team mates
  • Effects there mental health and wellbeing 
  • Effects there body and its functions 

 What is your solution?


How will it work? Why will it work? 



How can you test this solution?We can test the solution by testing people that have drugs in there system that were carefully put into the people by doctors. With the permission of the person having the drug being put in them, doctors put the device into action testing the patient with the controlled drug in them. this is how we test the solution.


Bullying in the Workplace



Bullying is repeated aggressive behavior that can be physical, verbal, or relational, in-person, or online.

Physical bullying includes hitting, kicking, or pushing you (or even just threatening to do so), as well as stealing, hiding, or ruining your things, and hazing, harassment, or humiliation.

Verbal bullying includes name-calling, teasing, taunting, insulting, or otherwise verbally abusing you.

Relationship bullying includes refusing to talk to you, excluding you from groups or activities, spreading lies or rumors about you, or making you do things you don’t want to do.

Boys frequently bully using physical threats and actions, while girls are more likely to engage in verbal or relationship bullying. But no type of bullying should ever be tolerated.


behavior characterized by the making of unwelcome and inappropriate sexual remarks or physical advances in a workplace or other professional or social situation.

Safe work Australia conducted a survey on random people across all states/territories. 

Their results showed relatively high amounts of bullying in electrical, water, and gas supply; health and community services and government administration and defence. 32.6% of people said they were bullied at least once a week. Workplace bullying increased by 7% from 2011 – 2014/5. The most common forms of harassment recorded were being yelled/sworn at (37.2%), being socially humiliated (23.2%) and physical assault (21.8%). Among this, racist or negative comments on ethnicity were experienced by 7.4% of people. Sexist behaviour was experienced by 10.9% of people. Women are more likely to be sexually harassed, bullied, discriminated by their gender and be physically assaulted. Men are significantly more likely to be sworn/yelled at. As the psychological health of workers increased, bullying decreased. 

Given this information, what do we learn? 

Based on the overall results and comparing the women’s and men’s results we can understand some more about injustice and the values held around the power distributed between men and women. 

Time travel to change the values of society and the way women and men are perceived. 

No swearing in the workplace. 

Having equal men and women in the workplace. 

If you’re getting sexually harassed you can just go with it and suck it up. 

Helpline – workplace  

Education – being educated on sexual predators and understanding the difference between  

Therapists in the workplace 

Have a process that is a safe and easy way to help. 


  1. Create a well-developed and airtight anti bullying policy ( the policy should have a clear outline of what is accepted and what isn’t)
  2. Train managers to identify bullying behaviour or the signs an employee is being bullied. ( Give your managers the skills to have difficult conversations to address bullying behaviour. )
  3. Speak to your employees ( actively communicate standards of expected behaviour. )
  4. Have an open door policy. ( Be approachable, trustworthy and let employees know you are there to help them. )
  5. Promote productive, respectful working relationships. ( Create a healthy work culture where everyone is treated with dignity and respect, no one is taken advantage of and everyone works as a team )
  6. Identify and call bullying behaviours early. ( For example, make it clear that no racist, sexist or discriminatory jokes will be laughed at or tolerated. Identify and model the behaviours that you need in your team. This will help you to create a work culture based on respect, where bullying is not tolerated. )
  7. Look out for your employees. ( It is also important to recognise and respond to early potential indicators an employee is being bullied and support them to seek help. )
  8. Provide regular and respectful feedback. ( Managers are responsible for monitoring workflow and providing work and performance feedback with the intention of assisting employees to improve performance. focus on high quality, respectful and regular performance feedback in order to prevent performance management being perceived as bullying. )
  9. Manage workplace stressors and risks. ( Role conflict and uncertainty may cause bullying behaviours due to the stress it places on employees. Ensure employees understand their roles and have the skills to do their job to minimise the risk of employees’ perceiving difference of opinion or management action as bullying. )
  10. Follow your company’s policy and processes when standards of expected behaviour are not met or when dealing with a bullying complaint. ( If bullying does occur, it is important to recognise this behaviour and act on it early. Ensure your grievance process is fair and timely as well as compliant with regulations. )


figure>Homelessness soars in our biggest cities, driven by rising inequality since 2001
Picture found in The Conservation:

Problem/Question: How can we reduce homelessness or provide homeless people with basic housing?

Solution: Every person who can’t afford rent gets, to have a pod that is a safe area for them to sleep and leave their belonging, for payment everyday they have to spend 1 hour cleaning the facility, like in japan and it’s covered by the government.  The payment could either be cleaning or cooking, they clean the facilities and cook for the people in the pods. The people in the pods get three meals a day breakfast lunch and dinner. Its there choice if they want the meals for example if they are out they miss out on the meal. In the building there is a kitchen and a area with tables for the people to eat at. The building will be made from government funding and then there will be a charity made that people can donate in that funds the food and cleaning products. There will be a few paid staff that will make sure everything is running smothely along with one security guard. In the pod there is a bed and enough area to put there belongs and a locking door. There will also be power outlets in the pod. In the facility there will also be a educztion centre where the homesless are able to learn about a trade or job of there choice so that they can be finacially stable. Volunteers are going to be a big part of this organisation. 


⚫ Homeles people are now able to feel safe about your belongings and not be scared about abuse.


⚫ It might get broken into or damage of the property

We can solve the disavantages by if a person breaks or damages the property that get punished like not being able to sleep there and having to go in the streets for a period of time, if broken or damaged the person has been they aren’t allowed to be there, or they clean up the campus for a week ro fix what is a mess.



Drugs in Sport 5

Why are drugs in sport an issue?

Using performance enhancing drugs are banned in all sports because it can give athletes unfair advantages over other athletes and sport is all about having a fair game. The issue of drugs in sport has been around for quite a while and the first ever professional drug tests in sport was conducted in 1966 at the European championships (Soccer), then shortly after at the next summer and winter Olympics. Another issue is that drugs are being used in sport to help athletes cope with mental health issues such as anxiety or depression which is not a healthy way of looking after their mental health. 

How are drugs tested?

The urine, blood, or saliva samples are sent to a lab and the test results reported to the governing body of the particular sport. If drugs are not found in the test sample, the result is negative. If substances are found, the result is positive and you may be banned or suspended from your sport.

Benefits of drug testing

  • creating a deterrent for athletes who may consider to use drugs to cheat in sport 
  • promoting drug-free sport that incorporates fair play 
  • promoting safety in sport 
  • promoting equity in sport 
  • rewarding athletes for their ability, training and efforts 
  •  protects athletes’ reputations 

What drugs are Taken?

-anabolic steroids (containing testosterone) – these are the most commonly used performance-enhancing drugs in Australia 

-peptides and hormones (such as human growth hormone) 

-beta-2 agonists (medicine used for asthma control) 

-glucocorticoids (medicine used for asthma control) 

-diuretics (medicine used for weight loss) 

-illicit drugs, including 

-stimulants (such as amphetamines, cocaine and MDMA (ecstasy) 

-narcotics (such as heroin, morphine and pethidine) 

-cannabinoids (such as marijuana and hashish) 

Why should athletes be tested for drugs?

Drug testing is the process of collecting samples of your blood, urine, or saliva to check for chemicals that are either illegal or banned in a sport. Drug testing in sports helps: Prevent cheating in sports. Keep a level playing field for athletes. 

Our Solution

A solution to make drug testing more fair is that professionals can test athletes using more than on drug test method. Our idea is that they test the hair for the drugs that have been used further in the past and then also a saliva test for more immediate and to also detect more recent drug use. This method of testing for drugs will make sure that athletes are tested thoroughly and acurately.


Another solution that our group was able to come up with was that when athletes come to competions they are required to be screened by security for any drugs on them or in there belongings before they are approved to enter the competion and compete. It will make sure that atheletes dont have drugs available to them during the copetition making testing more accurate and fair.

Why people use drugs in sport?

 Using drugs improves in game performance in sport. Drugs in sport may lead to an athlete being banned. But it may also harm their general health. Sporting authorities have banned many drugs and other substances, not just because they might give an athlete an unfair advantage but also because of the wider health risks. 

Why are some drugs and substances banned in sports?

So-called ‘performance-enhancing drugs’ or ‘performance and image-enhancing drugs’ are banned in sports because they could give a sportsperson an unfair advantage over other competitors. Using drugs in sport undermines values like fair play and teamwork. When sportspeople use drugs, they not only might damage their own health, they also give sport a bad reputation and set a poor example to others. 

What health damage can performance drugs cause?

Drugs that are banned in sport can cause several types of health problem. Their effects will depend on the type of drug; how much and how often it’s taken; and who is taking it. 

Steroids – make muscles bigger and stronger but cause :

  • a risk of heart attack, stroke, and effect on heart size 
  • an increased risk of liver and cardiovascular disease suicidal and aggressive thoughts.  

Human Growth Hormone – hGH (Human Growth Hormone) may make muscles and bones stronger and recover faster. But it is not only your muscles that get bigger. hGH use may lead to:  

  • a protruding forehead, brow, skull, and jaw – which can’t be reversed  
  • an enlarged heart that can result in high blood pressure and 
    heart failure  
  • damage to livers, thyroid and vision  
  • bigger joints leading to arthritis. 

 Narcotics – Narcotics, like heroin and morphine may help you forget about the pain. But can cause:  

  • a weakened immune system  
  • a decreased heart rate and  
  • suppressed respiratory system  
  • loss in balance, coordination  
  • and concentration  
  • gastrointestinal problems like  
  • vomiting and constipation  
  • narcotics are also highly addictive –  
  • your body and mind quickly become dependent on them. 

 Masking Agents – Some athletes try to cheat the system by using diuretics and other substances to cover-up the signs of using 

banned substances.  

The side effects can affect your ability to compete and train and may lead to:  

  • dizziness or light headiness  
  • low blood pressure  
  • loss of coordination and balance  
  • development of cardiac disorders 

 Stimulants – Stimulants are used to heighten the competitive edge and are often found in supplements like pre-workouts. These can result in:  

  • involuntary shaking or trembling  
  • coordination and balance  
  • problems  
  • anxiety and aggression  
  • an increased and irregular  
  • heart rate  
  • heart attack or stroke. 

Criminal Rules

What should the minimum age of responsibility be in terms of juvenile offending and which criminal rules would be changed

What is Criminal Responsibility?

The term criminal responsibility refers to a person’s ability to understand his or her conduct at the time a crime is committed. Criminal law is the body of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, fixes penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders. The participation by a minor child, usually between the ages of 10 and 17, in illegal behaviour and activities is called juvenile offending.

Current age of responsibility

The age of criminal responsibility in WA is 10 years old. This means if you are 10 or older, and you commit a criminal offence, you can be charged and convicted in court. 

Between the ages of 10 and 14 years old, the police must prove in court that you understood what you were doing was wrong. 

If you are over 14 years old, the law says you can be held responsible for your actions, even if you didn’t actually know that you were doing the wrong thing or were breaking the law. 

The current age of responsibility for a juvenile who commits a criminal offence needs to be raised from 10 years of age to 14. Also, the criminal rules associated with juvenile offenders should be changed as it can be more beneficial towards delinquent children.

The problem

The problem is children under the age of 13, are prosecuted to juvenile detention and are having there childhood taken away from them, and from this become traumatised as well as develop other mental issues from the lack of experience of growing up, stress applied to the children, the lack having a proper education, the lack of interacting with new people.

The current age of responsibility for a juvenile who commits a criminal offence needs to be raised from 10 years of age to 13. Also, the criminal rules associated with juvenile offenders should be changed as it can be more beneficial towards delinquent children.

Affects on the community

The minimum age of responsibility affects people because if people are convicted too young it can cause problems achieving compliance with international rights standards; ensuring parity between ages of responsibility in civil and criminal law; and minimising wider harm. 

Different components of the problem

The younger the child enters the criminal justice system the more likely they will reoffend, indigenous children are disproportionately affected 

Why do we need to solve it?

We need to expand the age range of the prosecution of minors/children being sentenced to juvenile detention, as children are loosing there childhood, education, as well as developing mental conditions such as PTSD, depression, and anxiety from being sentenced at a young age to attend juvenile detention.

Creating a solution

We will create a solution by researching other cases of which those who have had experienced juvenile detention, have been highly impacted mentally from there experience in their time spent there. From this we will use their experience told to us to influence the public and community around us in hope to raise awareness for the affects that juvenile detention has on a young person’s health.

Our solution

Our solution is creating a petition for our local area with a goal of 10,000 signatures, 2 thousand signatures per person in our group. From there we will seek cases which children have been highly affected from juvenile detention and are still seeking help to recover from there experience there. We will then rely on the publics support for our petition to reach our local court, to raise awareness of the affect juvenile detention has on young people.

How and why will the solution work?

The petition will work to influence the community around us, from personal story’s and cases of children being sent at ages under 13 to juvenile detention, and how it impacted them emotionally, mentally and their relationships with others. From these cases we will try to raise awareness of the issue, by creating a petition of 10,000 signatures to be sent to our local courts, in hope to create a difference regarding the age of a minor should be sentenced to juvenile detention.

How can we test our solution?

We can test our solution by making our petition. This way we can get real results and try to communicate our solution to others that believe in our problem. Below is the link for our petition.

Can we improve on our solution?

We can improve our solution by looking at the results of our petition. We can always edit it and share our petition more in order to receive more signages on the petition. 

Communities for Homelessness

What is homelessness?

Homelessness is defined as the state of not having a home.

What is causing homelessness?

Homelessness can be caused by unemployment, poverty, unaffordable housing, mental illness and gambling. One of the most common causes of homelessness is domestic and family violence. In 2018-2019, 40% of people in search of accommodation at homelessness services experienced domestic and family violence.

Who is at risk of being homeless?

20% of people experiencing homelessness are Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander people.

Children and young people can be particularly vulnerable to homelessness.

More than 6 800 woman aged over 55 experience homelessness with a rise of over 30% in five years. 

How does homelessness affect the community?

Homelessness impacts the availability of healthcare resources, crime and safety, the workforce, and the use of tax dollars.

Why do we need to solve homelessness?

We need to solve homelessness because when people are living on the streets they are more vulnerable to things like violence from strangers or cold and sickness. They also cannot spend time with their family and friends during times such as Christmas, Easter and New Years. This can bring other peoples spirit and mood down because they feel sad for the person sleeping rough. Community homes would create a place for people to stay when they are sleeping rough and going through some tough times in there life.

How can homelessness be solved?

Community Homes is a temporary shelter for people living on the streets where they can go for a certain period of time to get out of the weather. You can stay at these community homes for around 6 months to 1 year.  Most of the people working at the community housing would be volunteers, this would be so that we could afford to run the place but also so that the people living in the actual housing could also do some work and help out.

There will also be the following conditions for you to stay at a community home:

You have to do housekeeping jobs

You need to be respectful of other people and their homes

You need to be in search of a job whilst staying in the home

What does the Community home include?

The community home includes a kitchen room, a bathroom, bedrooms, an outdoor area and a dining area.

Driverless cars

By Sam Pittard, Xavier Brun, Noa Case Tenten and Charlotte Munro


The term ‘driverless’ refers to all vehicles which have higher levels of automation, beginning at the point where a driver may not need their hands on the steering wheel, but is ready to take over control, right through to where a vehicle doesn’t need a driver and may not even have a steering wheel. As technology evolves, driverless cars will continue to use a variety of technologies to monitor their surroundings, such as radar, laser light, GPS, and computer vision. 


For our project, we were asked to find a solution to make driverless cars safe for everyone and environmentally friendly. We want people to be able to feel safe and secure when in these cars. Also, we don’t want the environment to be damaged by the cars. Right now, the cars are prone to crashing and all companies that have produced driverless cars have at least experienced 1 death. With the environmental part of the cars, they so far have no ideas to reduce or stop the environment cost to these driverless cars.   

The current technology being used by car companies is not the safest possible and it is also not very environmentally friendly. Not only does the technology within the car need to be changed but also our world needs to build better roads and infrastructure to support these vehicles. By improving our current roads and infrastructure to support driverless cars, we can make travel from A to B safer and environmentally friendly. This is because driverless cars run on electricity to run rather than fuel, which adds greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. If the roads became only driverless it may be safer as all the cars could communicate eradicating human error. 



Driverless cars have sensors and cameras surrounding the car to make sure it can travel safely to its destination. These cars use cameras, ultrasonic sensors and LIDAR sensors in collaboration with each other to create a secure, safe vehicle.  However these sensors can’t work as well in harsh weather such as snow and hail. 


Cameras allow the car to identify objects that are within proximity of the vehicle. This identification of the object helps the car come up with a plan on how to react to the interference, this could be braking, stopping, veering, etc. Although cameras have flaws as they can be interfered with by things such as rain, hail, fog, etc. 

The car will also have ultrasonic sound sensors used to detect the distance of objects. Ultrasonic sensors work by sending out sound at a high frequency (that humans can’t hear) at measure the time it takes to reflect off an object and get back to the sensor. The time it takes for the sound to travel can be converted into an accurate measurement on how far away the object is. Benefits of ultrasonic sensors is that they pass through water, meaning rain would not effect, and it has a much higher range of testing than a camera. 

The car will also feature a LIDAR sensor system. LIDAR sensors works by emitting pulse light waves into its surroundings, once these pulses return to the sensors, the car can create an accurate 3D model of the area around it. This sensor can be used to help the car determine the position of other cars that aren’t driverless and aren’t connected to the satellite system.


A major problem related to the driverless cars is that they won’t have enough experience of road rules. Companies are trying to film roads and showing this to cars so they get an understanding. However they can’t film every car crash, and every fallen tree. As well as cars not able to show the same signals as humans, such as you go first or i’m stopping. Driverless cars are just robots and they can’t feel and act like humans.


Most cars in our economy aren’t environmentally friendly.  A survey done showed that if possible people would prefer to buy eco friendly cars as not to ruin our world. Due to this companies are trying to find ways to produce environmentally friendly ways to make cars. With driverless cars companies hope sell them all around the world and so to protect our world companies are trying to make eco friendly cars. This will benefit the whole world in the long run. However there are problems with how to make the driverless cars more environmentally friendly than other cars.



To over come the issue of harsh weather (such as snow) stopping the sensors working as well we will have a new sensor on the car. This sensor will override all other sensors and will make sure the car will avoid all big piles of snow. It also will cancel out all snow the other sensors will see so they can focus on their jobs.


To make the vehicles more safe we will connect the cars through orbital satellite. Each car would have a receiver and a transmitter to receive and connect to the other cars. To keep the car safe and detect real time threats from objects other than cars. These other objects could include pedestrians crossing the street, fallen trees, animals, or other obstructions.  For example if a car finds a tree that has fallen over it will send a message to all cars in the area to warn them to stay away from that road.


From our research, we have found that the most cost effective and environmentally friendly is the Graphene-based battery as a replacement for the commonly used lithium-ion batteries.  Graphene-based batteries are being actively researched for many commercial applications. The improved performance and life cycle advantages when developing graphene-based batteries over traditional metal-ion batteries are well worth the resource investment. Elon Musk’s Tesla Motors provides a famous example of innovative companies actively pursuing graphene battery research and commercialisation. 

Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) are now used for nearly every new vehicle design. AHSS make up as much as 60% of today’s vehicles body structures making lighter, optimised vehicle designs that enhance safety and improve fuel efficiency. Steel is one of the few alloys which is almost 95% recyclable (excluding the 5% in scrap contamination) This ensures a long-life cycle for steel products in the global economy, which ranges from the first-time use of steel to multiple recycling rounds that obsolete steel scrap can go through. Steel has a long-life cycle backed by its physical properties, which enables it one of the highest recovery rates among all recycled metals and alloys globally. Steel seems to be the appropriate choice in the manufacturing of environmentally friendly cars and it’s high relative strength makes it a safer option if the car were to be in an accident.