Recycling Part 1

· How will you create a solution?

  • By using plastic roads               

· What is your solution?

 Plastic roads

· How will it work?

Using recycled plastic bottles and crushed up asphalt

· Why will it work?

It uses plastic bottles to make roads that have better protection from potholes and flooding

· How can you test this solution?

By looking at data from real roads.

This tech is already being used in Australia, Indonesia, India, the United Kingdom, the United States 

· Can you re-design and make it better?

It could be redesigned in a way to make it cheaper and faster to make and faster to install. Another way could be to make them “less efficient” using more plastic. 

Recycling Part 2

 Consult your parents and any experts you know.

· What is causing the problem?

  • People using plastic that is unnecessary 

· Why do we need to solve it?

  •  So people can experience living in a clean environment

· Have others tried to solve it? How 

  • Yes others have tried to solve it , by using recyclable products

· How is this solved in different countries?

  • Sweden converts waste into energy.

· Can we combine or improve existing solutions?

  •    By putting more recycling bins in public places.  
  •    By adding more ‘containers for change’ in more places for better convenience.

Recycling Part 3

· What are the key words?

  • Recycling
  • Plastic
  • Reducing wastage

· What exactly needs to be solved?

  • Excessive wastage not being made proper use of to do with recycling

· What needs to be changed?

  • Kinds of plastics we use
  • The way we dispose of plastics
  • The amount of waste we produce

· How does this problem affect people in the community?

  • Plastic buildup in the community
  • Can cause people to become unhappy due to their dirty surroundings
  • Peoples health is at risk as they could be breathing in toxic plastic breakaways
  • Uneffective recycling of plastics can begin to affect organisms in the food chain from miniature species like plankton to much larger species like whales

· What is the context?

  • The context is that people are struggling with recycling plastics and that they need to be taught and figure out better ways to utilise recycling and how to reduce wastage in the community

What are the different components of this problem?

  • People are using too much plastic
  • People don’t know how to reduce their plastic use
  • People don’t know how to recycle

 – Explain the problem in your own words?

  • Recycling of plastics became significant in the world in the 1970’s

Minimum Age of Responsibility #3

Laws we would change

Safe Injection Rooms

In Richmond, Melbourne they are trialing rooms in which you can safely inject heroin. Richmond is the epicentre of Melbournes heroin problem with many people dying in it’s streets, the safe rooms aim to take the danger out of doing the drugs however i think that the rules surrounding the rooms are too soft. 

The changes that i would make to the rooms are; first of all to offer rehab to all of the users of the rooms, this would  help to hopefully decrease the number of users of the safe rooms. secondly i would put a limit on how much you would be allowed to use the rooms to two hours a week, this would hopefully limit the dependence of users of the safe rooms. Thirdly i would put strict consequences in place if you broke rules or became violent to other users, these rules would be; a good behavior bond, a years worth of rehab and suspended use from the safe rooms. 

I think that these changes will decrease the violence of these safe rooms and i think that the users will become less dependent on the safe injecting rooms and the heroin that they provide. 

Age of Responsibility

Crimes committed by under ten year olds

If a child commits a crime before the age of 10, their parents/guardians can be fined and they may have to do community service or attend correctional classes. If the child continues to offend, a government official ‘nanny’ can be sent to live in the household, to help around the house, care for the child and ensure they obey the law. However, children under ten can not be sent to juvenile detention centers.

If a child under 10 commits a crime, they must be proven in court that they knew what they were doing when they did it. If the crime is an infraction they can choose not to do this and accept the consequences instead. The court hearing must be friendly and positive.

They face either

  1. A fine towards the guardians and a warning to the child for infractions — eg.  trespass, walking an unleashed dog, littering
  2. Community service for misdemeanors — eg. theft, vandalism, destruction of property
  3. Guardians must attend parenting classes and the child is sent to correctional classes for felonies — eg. animal cruelty, murder
  4. For repeated offenses, a government official ‘nanny’ is sent to live with/visit daily and take care of the child (and help the guardians) for an amount of time

Crimes do not go on the offenders’ record, unless they are a misdemeanor or higher and repeated more than three times with less than three years apart.

Reasons for this

Children are greatly impacted by their environment and the way they are brought up. Studies have shown the way a child is raised has extreme impacts on their personality, mental health, and how they behave. This is why parents/guardians should take partial of the responsibility, for not teaching the child it is wrong, during a time when the guardian is the child’s highest influence.

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Additionally, being punished harshly or being separated from society in juvenile detention centers, with other offenders, has been shown to make children more likely to rebel and commit crimes in the future. The earlier a child enters the justice system, the more likely they are to have repeat interactions with it. It isolates children from the rest of the world when they are still learning how to be a part of it, not giving them a chance to improve and show they have learnt to be better.

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However, if those interactions with the justice system were positive, the child would learn and have support rather than be damaged. (This follows the idea that support is better than fear when it comes to teaching/ruling/parenting.) The Royal Commission into Protection and Detention of Children in the Northern Territory found that the NT youth detention system was likely to leave many children and young people more damaged when they leave than when they entered the system. By sending a child to correctional classes they can learn why what they did was wrong, to stop them repeating their behavior in the future, while still maintaining a relationship with their family and a connection to the outside world. 

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Mental Health issues for Men

Males, especially older males, in our community experience mental health issues at the same rate as females, yet their presentation for help in any form is considerably lower. What steps can be taken to encourage men to seek assistance?

what are the social and emotional barriers to seeking help for men and improving their lives?
It’s a bit of a generalisation but it still holds true today, men tend to be OK with their mates but are often reluctant to seek help from professionals. It’s still a challenge for most blokes to even go to the doctors, yet alone seek help with emotional issues from a professional. As you can imagine, that reluctance was even more prevalent in the military culture. Men are raised with the expectation to be strong and not need help, but there are times when all of us could do with someone to talk to and share the challenges that life throws at us.
There’s definitely more reluctance from men to open up and share their thoughts. More traditional and formal helping environments tend to make this even more difficult. That means people and organisations providing help for men need to be creative about how they engage with differing groups of people. A service that wants to engage men needs to understand and target their client group with imagination and respect.

How do you encourage men to open up? What techniques have you found to be effective?
Traditional methods of counselling don’t always work for people. We’ve found that simple things like kicking a ball around, having a coffee or talking to them during a car journey is less confrontational, helps ease the tension and allows guys to talk more freely. 
It’s all about respectful partnership engagement. The person is the expert on themselves and what is working and failing, not the social worker or counsellor. There is always the temptation to ‘rescue’ and try to fix or solve the problem immediately – the key is to resist that impulse and hear them out first. Recognise where they’d rather be and try to meet them on their patch, both physically and emotionally. Having a ‘safe space’ is a vitally important concept. Building trust enough to allow free exchange usually take a couple of engagements, so social workers need to utilise a range of approaches according to what’s presented.
Sometimes it is necessary to sit with their distress for a while to help them find the underlying cause of things. 

Though men don’t commonly seek out professional help, they do other things in their daily lives to try to help themselves including (but not limited to):

1.    Eating healthily (54.2% do this regularly)

2.   Keeping Busy (50.1%) 

3.   Exercise (44.9%)

To encourage men to open up to professionals who could really help them, it could be worth using some casual techniques men have used already such as the ones listed above. Psychologists could come up with more informal courses they could do for men who don’t want their mental health to be a big deal or seen by others (mostly by themselves) as a weakness.

Like women, most men with mental health issues are offered “gender neutral” services. While this may seem fair and equal, gender neutral services can fail to take into account the different needs of men and women. It is important that services take into account the needs for the individual they are helping, and expironment to see what 



What do you see as the most common issue for men in today’s world?
Anger blocking access to support and help for men. Anger against a person, against ‘the system’, against the helping organisation and the like. It acts as a barrier that prevents them from getting help, that presents more often in men. Anger is part of a natural defence mechanism that projects frustrations out onto the world around them and is part of the ‘fight or flight’ instinct that we all have. If people have trauma, they can be locked in a cycle of fight or flight. In general, boys tend to act out this out more and that continues into manhood, especially if they have no one to talk to. They are the people I worry the most about.
Developing resilience and mindfulness is crucial, to find more productive ways to understand ourselves and paths to deal with our issues. Developing assertiveness and managing anger greatly helps these efforts.

According to Associate Professor Richard Fletcher, at the University of Newcastle, “dads’ mental health impacts children and mums too. Lack of partner support is a risk factor for maternal depression and research shows that a child of a depressed father has three times the rate of behaviour problems and twice the chance of a psychiatric diagnosis at seven years of age.”


What are some of your tips to encourage people to seek help for men?
– Trust is the most important thing. Find someone you trust that will give you honest feedback, not someone who just tells you what you want to hear or reaffirms where you are stuck.
– If you’ve got an issue, explore it with someone – a mate, family or consider talking to a professional. There are lots of different ways to seek help nowadays – face to face, phone or online chat or a variety of helplines. Find what works best and do it on your terms. Find your safe space and comfort zone with an individual or organisation who will work at your pace.
– Also recognise that having troubles is very normal – 1 in 4 Australians experiences some type of mental health issue in the course of their lives and all sorts of life events can act as triggers for the likes of anxiety and depression.

One reason men die earlier than women is that men are less likely to seek preventive care or medical treatment. This is true even for male physicians, who are less likely than female physicians to seek medical treatment for their own health conditions, “Mental and physical health are interrelated in men,” Dr Englar-Carson told Psychiatry Advisor.

Male Alexithymia
Normative Male Alexithymia is a very clinical sounding term that describes when men have tremendous difficulty putting their emotional experience into words. This can often put relationships on the ice because generally women need to talk about emotions to feel a connection, and men often “just can’t go there.”
All 3 experts agree: men are not acculturated to talk about their feelings. Most are raised on adages such as “big boys don’t cry,” or “man up.” They are encouraged to be stoic and to “tough it out,” Dr Ogrodniczuk said. Expressing feelings is sometimes seen as the women’s domain. 
Men taught to repress their feelings often underplay their experiences, leaving clinicians in the dark as to what is actually happening for them. A meta-analysis of studies that included both clinical and nonclinical populations found that men consistently exhibited higher levels of alexithymia than women. 
“Male depression is typically masked,” Dr Englar-Carlson said. “The man will suffer silently and say, ‘I’m fine.’ ”



No Stereotypes
“In our field, we do not talk about ‘masculinity’ but, rather, about ‘masculinities.’ How each man experiences and enacts masculinity will be different,” Dr Englar-Carlson emphasized.
Many factors intersect to form sense of masculinity, including gender orientation and cultural and socioeconomic background. For example, “a working class Italian-American from Chicago will have a different masculine identity than an undocumented immigrant in Southern California,” Dr Englar-Carlson said. 
There are also generational differences, he pointed out. “My son, age 13, has a different orientation of what it means to be a man than I do at age 46.”

Male vs Female Practitioners
Do male patients relate better to female or to male therapists? 
Findings of studies are mixed. A series of 3 studies found that male participants with traditional “masculine” views preferred a male physician via beliefs that men make more competent physicians than women. However, these men who scored higher on masculinity measures were more likely to disclose their symptoms to a female physician. 
“Many men may be more comfortable talking about sexual issues to women, maybe because they are afraid a male would judge them or they would be in competition,” observed Dr Myers, who is the author of Why Physicians Die by Suicide.
Some men who have been sexually abused are afraid of being judged by male therapists but may feel more affinity with women. “However, with increased focus on male sexual abuse through media stories, this trend might be changing,” he said.
He cautioned female therapists to be cognizant of potential erotic transference. “If the therapist has not received training how to detect and handle this issue, it could compromise the therapy and even the therapist’s safety, especially if the patient has a history of impulsivity or sexual assault,” he warned.
But in the case of “average, high-functioning males, a female psychiatrist should be comfortable working with positive transference onto her,” and it becomes part of the therapeutic process.

The Role of the Media in Encouraging Men to Seek Help for Depression or Anxiety –

The media has a strong impact on the public’s perceptions of mental illness.
Men report a lower rate of mental health problems compared to women, and they seek help at a much lower rate.
Promoting help-seeking amongst men for depression and anxiety is fundamental to
improving men’s mental health.
The language and focus of a story about depression and anxiety has a real
impact on men with mental illness.
Men can be encouraged to seek help for depression and anxiety through the use of
media campaigns that work to increase symptom recognition, reduce stigma and encourage help-seeking.

Key findings
– The proportion of men contacting helplines was lower than that of women, although the proportion of male contacts appears to have increased in recent years.
– Of the ten stories analysed, four were associated with increased contact with helplines by men in the two weeks following the story. When the observation period was expanded to three weeks, one further story was also associated with increased contacts to helplines by men. One story resulted in increased contacts only in the first week following the story. One story had a negative impact on contacts to helplines by men and three stories showed no change in contacts.
– The four stories that had the most consistently positive impact on contacts to helplines (at two and three weeks post-story) were differentiated from the other stories by being stories about hope and recovery that featured men who were either revered or could be easily identified with.
– The increase in contacts was somewhat consistent across the four helplines, even though the four helplines differ in their intended target client (i.e., men only, all Australians, those with mental illness, those with depression or anxiety) and even though two of the stories featured campaigns that were promoting only one of the helplines.


This study demonstrates the significant positive impact that newsprint media can have on the help-seeking behaviours of men with depression and/or anxiety. The findings reconfirm the need for articles to provide accurate representations of depression and anxiety, while maintaining an optimistic focus on recovery. The use of publicly revered role models appears to be particularly useful in promoting help-seeking.



Inspirational Mens Mental Health Quotes - Etuttor

Providing Help: Domestic Violence Part 4

Our solution to domestic violence towards women follows a item used in every household worldwide. This solution follows a switch that is to be used when a women is experiencing domestic violence in her household or has recently experienced it. They will be cheap switches in a room of every household that will show police/emergency services the location of the switch that has been used, when it was used and would be able to go there and help the person being victim to domestic violence. It may also be good if police or emergency services try to keep active with the community and engage with them as it may allow and encourage women experiencing domestic violence as they may feel more accepted if they have a good relationship with local police etc.

Providing Help: Domestic Violence Part 1

I believe that mobile phones are bad because a person who is victim to domestic violence can have their phone taken away from them or broken by the violent aggressive partner so they need other options. An item such as a switch throughout the house that a partner may not know about could be useful to a woman facing domestic violence. If a woman has experienced domestic violence in the past, she could go to a store and buy a switch that she can put in her home for her to use and so when she uses it, it would send a ping to a big network which tells police about the location. The switch is to be used when a woman or man is facing domestic violence and has experienced it around that time. This would allow police to have a chance to catch a person inflicting domestic violence to a partner etc. and give a chance to a woman experiencing domestic violence a chance to speak up about her life and what has been happening. Some statistics show how Domestic Violence leads to over 30,000 deaths worldwide all year. 1 in 6 women and 1 in 16 men in Australia have experienced domestic violence throughout their lives. From 2016-2017, 17 adults were hospitalized from domestic violence from a current or ex partner. This refers to how our switch can change thousands of lives. It can save thousands of people and give them an opportunity to change their lives for the better in a domestic violence situation.

Sexual Harassment in the workplace

What is sexual harassment?

Sexual harassment is any unwelcome conduct of sexual nature. The following can all be considered as sexual harassment.

–    Touching, grabbing or making other physical contact without consent

–   Making sexual comments 

–   Asking for sexual favours

–   Leering and staring

–   Displaying rude or offensive materials 

–   Making sexual gestures or suggestive body movements 

–   Sexual jokes and comments

–   Insulting others with sexual comments

–   Committing a criminal offense such as making an obscene phone call, indecently exposing themselves, or sexual assault

Sexual harassment is a large problem in workplaces, with one in three workers saying they had been sexually assaulted in their workplace over the last 5 years.

What can workplaces do to prevent sexual harassment?

To prevent sexual harassment, workplaces can do a number of things such as set up policies, educate employees, encourage bystanders to speak up and take all allegations seriously.


There are many companies that have sexual harassment policies in place, which state the companies views on sexual harassment. For example, stating that the company will defend the rights of every employee and provide an environment that is supportive. A template of a sexual harassment policy, created by the Institute of Community Directors Australia, can be used to write up a policy for a company and states its purpose, the definition of sexual harassment and responsibilities and procedures in the case of a sexual harassment allegation.


At a designated time every year, there should be a seminar to discuss and educate employees about sexual harassment, and go through the procedures if someone has been sexually harassed. These meetings would encourage a supportive workplace and would help employees to stand up for themselves and others.

Report system

There should also be a system to report all allegations of sexual harassment. This would verify the idea that all allegations should be taken seriously and may encourage more people to report if they or someone else has been victimised. Due to the low percentage of sexual harassment incidents that are formally reported (around 17% of total incidents) it is important to get more people to report incidents, whether as a witness or a victim.

Reports should always be anonymous, to lessen fear of negative repercussions.

What can the government do to prevent sexual harassment?

The government has an important role in stopping sexual harassment. New policies should be put in place for Australian companies to call upon in the case of sexual harassment in their workplace. Policies like having psychologists employed by the government to be placed in companies, having a department seperate from the company designed to deal with these issues or setting up a helpline.

Psychologists employed by the government to work in large companies may help people to report incidents of sexual harassment and to feel more comfortable in their workplace. Feeling safe and secure is important in the work environment, as it increases productivity and creates a better dynamic between coworkers. Having someone to talk to with no bias within the workplace will create more feelings of security if an employee feels as if they can’t talk to anyone else.

Most victims of sexual harassment don’t report the incidents out of fear that they won’t be believed, that it’s not worth it, that they’ll be ostracised or that their career would be damaged. This may be due to bias within the company, with people believing the harasser over the victim due to pre-existing bonds. If a seperate department was to be introduced into the government that handles all sexual harassment claims and has a ‘helpline’, victims of harassment may find it easier to open up about their negative experiences.

What can individuals do to prevent sexual harassment?

Individuals can help prevent sexual harassment in their workplace by being observant and diligent in standing up for themselves and others. This can be done by using the report system, or calling the helpline.

It is important for a healthy and supportive environment to be created in the workplace to encourage employees to stand behind each other and work together to prevent sexual harassment in their workplace.

What do you do if you are sexually harassed?

If you are sexually harassed there are many ways that you could warn someone, or ask for help. One of these ways is calling or contacting the helpline and explaining the situation that’s going on in the workplace to see if they can help.
If you are sexually harassed in the workplace it is always better to let someone who you can trust so that it is known, if you tell someone there is a greater chance that it will be prevented.


Providing Help: Domestic Violence Part 2

What is domestic violence?

Domestic violence refers to violent or aggressive behavior within a home usually referring to abuse from a spouse or partner.

What is the leading cause of domestic violence in women?

Domestic violence may occur due to one part of a relationship feeling like they need to take control.

Across the world, the chances of a female or male experiencing domestic violence are increasing. What are the chances to experience domestic violence in certain areas?


Sustainable Energy

What is Sustainable Energy?

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The supply of energy that meets the requirements of the present. Sustainable energy involves both renewable energy and energy efficiency, Both resources help to balance and decrease carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere.

Efficient energy use allows energy demand to slow down, so rising clean energy supplies can make big decreases in fossil fuels burning. If energy use grows too fast, renewable energy development will chase a going backwards objective. In addition, unless clean energy supplies come online quickly, slowing demand growth will only begin to decrease total release of fossil fuels; reducing the carbon content of energy sources is also required.

Pros:  Cons: 
Reduces pollution   Expensive to start off with  
Reduces greenhouse gases    Too much storage 
Renewable energy won’t run out    Geographic limitations 
Lower maintenance required    Will cause large businesses to close down 
Health benefits    

What are the Positives of Sustainable Energy?

Creating energy that manufactures no greenhouse gas release from fossil fuels and decreases some types of air pollution. Diversifying energy supply and reducing dependence on imported fuels. Creating economic development and jobs in manufacturing, installation, and more.

What are the Negatives of Sustainable Energy?

Unreliable weather can affect energy supply as renewable energy often relies on certain weather conditions, this can impact the reliability of a constant energy supply. For example:

– Hydro generators need enough rain to fill dams for their supply of flowing water.

-Wind turbines need wind to turn their blades.

-Solar panels need clear skies and sunshine to get the heat needed to generate electricity.

It’s hard to produce the same amounts as non-renewable sources. It can be difficult to generate quantities of electricity that are as large as those produced by traditional fossil fuel generators.

What is Non-Renewable Energy?

Impacts of Non-Renewable Energy?

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: When these non-renewable resources are extracted from the ground, greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, are released into the atmosphere. Causing a thick blanket of gas to circle our planet, leading to global warming.

Air Pollution: The fumes and gas emissions from the machines that extract or use the non-renew

Water Pollution:

Land Pollution:

Oil Spills and Accidents:

What will happen if we continue to use Fossil Fuels?

If we continue to use fossil fuels it is predicted that our climate will rise so high that it will become uncontrollable and an almost impossible issue to fix. This will cause millions of flora, fauna and humans alike to suffer and possible die. We might move to a more sustainable energy source or the world as we know will be no longe

A non-renewable resource is a natural resource that cannot either replenishes very slowly or cannot be replenished at all.

Types of Non-Renewable Energy?

• Fossil Fuel Oil

• Coal

• Natural Gas

• Nuclear

Impacts of Non-Renewable Energy?

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: When these non-renewable resources are extracted from the ground, greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, are released into the atmosphere. Causing a thick blanket of gas to circle our planet, leading to global warming.

Air Pollution: The fumes and gas emissions from the machines that extract or use the non-renew

Water Pollution:

Land Pollution:

Oil Spills and Accidents:

What will happen if we continue to use Fossil Fuels?

If we continue to use fossil fuels it is predicted that our climate will rise so high that it will become uncontrollable and an almost impossible issue to fix. This will cause millions of flora, fauna and humans alike to suffer and possible die. We might move to a more sustainable energy source or the world as we know will be no longe

What is Solar Energy?

Solar Energy is the energy produced through the conversion of sunlight into electricity. It was discovered in 1839 by Edmond Becquerel, a French physicist.

How is Solar Electricity Produced?

Step 1: The solar panels convert the sunlight into a DC current

Step 2: The inverter then converts the DC current to an AC current

Step 3: The AC current then travels through the wires throughout the house giving the house the electricity it needs

Step 4: The extra electricity is then credited onto the grid

Positives of Solar Energy

Renewable Energy Source: Due to the energy source being sunlight, it can always replenish immediately, therefore helping the environment

Diverse Application Options: Solar panels can be installed in various places, whether it’s roofs or the ground, allowing for many different building to use solar energy

Low Maintenance Costs: The cost of maintaining, cleaning and looking after the solar panels is reasonably cheap and very easy to do.

Reduces Electricity Bills: By using solar panels for your electricity source your electricity bills are reduced.

Negatives of Solar Energy

Initial Cost: The initial cost of purchasing solar panels are very expensive

Weather Dependent: Electricity is only made through the conversion of sunlight so when it is cloudy, sunlight is not able to be converted2 into energy

Possible Countries that can use Solar Energy

Some countries in the world do not have adequate temperatures and/or weathers to use solar energy, as they are too cold or cloudy, e.g. Iceland. However, some countries are much more suited to used Solar energy as their primary sustainable energy source, some of these include; Australia, Spain, Greece, Costa Rica and Malta.

What is Biomass Energy?

Biomass is made up of living things (or things that were once living). This can include any plant or animal material, such as sugarcane or corn crops or wood chips.

All these types of biomass contain energy because they’re organic materials. So, whether they started life as plants or animals, they’ve all absorbed chemical energy naturally from the sun.

Advantages and disadvantages of Biomass energy:

Biomass is a clean, renewable energy source. Its energy comes from the sun, and plants or algae biomass.

If trees and crops are sustainably farmed, they can offset carbon emissions when they absorb carbon dioxide through respiration.

Many biomass feedstocks, such as switchgrass, can be harvested on small lands or grazing lands, where they do not compete with food crops.

Unlike other renewable energy sources, such as wind or solar, biomass energy is stored within the organism, and can be harvested when it is needed.  

If biomass feedstocks are not replenished as quickly as they are used, they can become non-renewable. A forest, for instance, can take hundreds of years to re-establish itself.

Most biomass requires arable land to develop. This means that land used for biofuel crops such as corn and soybeans are unavailable to grow food or provide natural habitats.

Most biomass plants require fossil fuels to be economically efficient. An enormous plant under construction near Port Talbot, Wales, for instance, will require fossil fuels imported from North America, offsetting some of the sustainability of the enterprise.

Biomass has a lower “energy density” than fossil fuels. As much as 50% of biomass is water, which is lost in the energy conversion process. Scientists and engineers estimate that it is not economically efficient to transport biomass more than 160 kilometres from where it is processed.

What is Hydro Energy?

Hydropower or water power is power obtained from the energy of dropping or fast-running water, which may be controlled for useful purposes. It a form of energy that utilizes the power of water in motion, such as water flowing over a waterfall, to generate electricity. Hydro energy was discovered by James Francis in 

How does Hydro Energy work?

Most hydroelectric power plants have a pool of water, a gate or valve to control how much water flows out of the pool, and an outlet or place where the water ends up after flowing downward. Water gains potential energy just before it spills over the top of a dam or flows down a hill. The potential energy is converted into kinetic energy as water flows downhill. The water can be used to turn the blades of a turbine to generate electricity, which is distributed to the power plant’s customers.

The 21st Century Version of Hydropower | by Denis Pombriant | Medium

What is Geothermal Energy?

Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. In 1904 the very first geothermal electric power plant was created in which steam was used to generate power, this was all done by an Italian scientist Piero Ginori Conti.

How is Geothermal Electricity Produced?

Step 1: Heat is made in the Earth’s magma, along with layers of heat and rock. In this area radio-active substances decay.

Step 2: In these decaying areas, hot water is pumped far under the Earth’s surface through 3–10km long wells under a large amount of pressure.

Step 3: When the water reaches the Earth’s surface, the large amount of pressure rapidly drops, which therefore causes the water to transform into steam.

Step 4: The steam spins a turbine, which is connected to a generator that produces electricity. However, instead of spinning the turbine with the steam the steam is also sometimes turned back into water which is then pumped directly to houses as hot water.

Step 5: The steam cools down in a cooling tower and transforms back into water. The cold water is then pumped back into the Ground to start the Geothermal System cycle again.

Step 6: The electricity made through the geothermal process is then transported through underground pipes to different buildings to turn on the lights and to produce hot water.

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Positives of Geothermal Energy

Environmentally Friendly: Geothermal Energy is good for the environment because it does not create much pollution.

Renewable Resource: Geothermal Energy is renewable therefore it will replenish quicker and naturally.

Cost Efficient: It is cheap to Harness Geothermal Energy for it does not use any fuels.

Available Everywhere: Geothermal Energy is under the Earth’s crust therefore it can be accessed anywhere.

No Setting Damage: A Geothermal Power station is mostly built underground.

Negatives of Geothermal Energy

Earthquakes: Extreme Geothermal Power station can cause minor earthquakes in the areas around it.

Location Specific: Geothermal energy must be harnessed only in area’s where the cross is thin and weak.

High Costs: It is expensive to build and use the temperature systems during the Geothermal process.

Not Always Renewable: The Geothermal power station must be managed well to be sustainable and renewable.

Minor Environment issues: Geothermal Energy can cause small environmental problems if not managed well.

Geothermal Energy Worldwide

Geothermal Energy isn’t being used enough worldwide since it is a renewable resource it should be used more. Worldwide geothermal energy and biomass together only make up 1% of the worlds energy use. Worldwide geothermal energy is being produced in 24 countries yet 70 countries use geothermal heating. By 2050 it is predicted that geothermal energy will be able to provide for 3-5% of global demand though by 2100 it will be able to provide for 10%.

Future Use of Geothermal Energy

Geothermal power stations produce 2000 times less carbon dioxide than power plants run by fossil fuels therefore in the future scientists and engineers are looking to see how they can use more geothermal power for it is sustainable and renewable. Advanced technologies will allow us to harness geothermal power worldwide therefore it is predicted that by 2100 10% of our worldwide energy will come from geothermal power.

Possible Countries that can use Geothermal Energy

The best places to source geothermal energy are those countries lying on tectonic plate boundaries. Some countries that can make the best use of geothermal energy include; Japan, New Zealand, Hawaii, Alaska and California.

What is Tidal Energy?

tidal energy is powered by the natural rise and fall of ocean tides and currents. Some of these technologies include turbines and paddles.  a form of hydropower that involves making use of the potential energy created during tide changes to create electricity. This method of power generation causes zero direct greenhouse emissions; however, the environmental impact of tidal energy is yet to be confirmed.

Tidal Energy -- All Renewables Are Not Created Equal

How is Tidal Energy produced?

The energy is produced by the rush of ocean waters during the rise and fall of tides.
Tidal energy production is still in its early days, The amount of power produced so far has been very minimal. There are very few large commercial power plants operating in the world. The first was located in La Rance, France. The largest facility is the Sihwa Lake Tidal Power Station in South Korea. The United States has no tidal plants and only a few sites where tidal energy could be produced at a logical price. China, France, England, Canada, and Russia have much more possible to use this type of energy.

Types of Tidal Energy:

There are currently three different ways to get tidal energy: tidal streams, barrages, and tidal lagoons.

 For most tidal energy generators , turbines are placed in tidal streams.  A tidal stream is a fast-flowing body of water created by tides. Placing turbines in tidal streams is a complicated process , the machines are large and disrupt the tide they are trying to tackle.

Another type of tidal energy generator uses a large barriar called a barrage. With a barrage, water can spill over the top or through turbines in the barriar because the barrier is low. Barrages can be constructed across tidal rivers, bays, and estuaries.\

Another type of tidal energy generator involves the construction of tidal lagoons. A tidal lagoon is a body of ocean water that is partly surrounded by a natural or manmade barrier. Tidal lagoons might also be waterway and have freshwater emptying into them.

Tidal Energy: The New Sustainable Resource - Wood Harbinger

What is Wind Energy?

Wind energy is the process of generating electricity by utilizing the wind, or air flows that happens naturally inside the earth’s atmosphere. Modern wind turbines are used to capture kinetic energy from the wind and generate electricity.

How wind turbines work?

When the wind flows past a wind turbine, its rotors collect the wind’s kinetic energy and rotates, turning it into mechanical energy. This rotation turns the inner pole connected to a transmission, which rises the speed of rotation by a factor of 100. That rotates a source of power that produces electricity.

What is a wind farm?

A large number of wind turbines are constructed near eachother. A wind farm functions as a single power plant and sends electricity to the grid.

  • How to put Sustainable Energies into Play

Now that we know many possible sustainable energies that could replace non-renewable energies, we need to find a solution on how to put these sustainable energies into action. There are three main areas to consider in order to solve our energy crisis. Firstly, in order to solve this issue on a worldwide scale, we must consider that different places have different climates and resources available, so which countries will use which types of energies? Secondly, funding, where are we going to get the money to manufacture the parts needed for our sustainable energy making machines? Thirdly, how are we going to support workers who have lost their jobs in the fossil fuel industry?

Different countries for different energies:

Solar Energy – The weather must predominately be sunny, as in order for energy to be made, sunlight must be converted to electricity. Some countries that could initilise solar energy use best include Australia, Malta, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Morocco, Spain, Portugal, Greece and Uganda.

Biomass Energy – The best countries to apply biomass energy are rural areas. Some countries that have rural areas and already use a considerable amount of biomass energy include, Kenya (75%), India (50%), China (33%) and Brazil (25%). However industrialized location in countries such as Finland, Ireland, Sweden and the USA, also are able to initialise biomass energy.

Geothermal Energy – The best countries to use geothermal energy are those that lie on tectonic plate boundaries. Some countries that can make the best use of geothermal energy include; New Zealand, Hawaii, Japan, California, Alaska and multiple countries on the ring of fire.


•- Group Funding – The best countries to use geothermal energy are those that

– To get community councils  involved with the sustainable energy movement


Support for Fossil Fuel Businesses:

• Charities

• Job Seeker

• Workers who use their jobs in this industry get first pick for the sustainable energy jobs made available

How do we fix what we’ve already Destroyed?

We have already caused so much damage to the earth due to using non-renewable energies. So here are some solutions to speed up the process of fixing and restoring our damaged planet:

Plant more trees: to absorb the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

Travel on foot, bike or public transport: to lower the greenhouse gas emission into the atmosphere

Construct more wind farms and wind turbines: To contribute to more wind power in cities and towns

Provide to solar power panels to all houses and building: Help absorb the sun’s light into energy