Recycling Part 1

· How will you create a solution?

  • By using plastic roads               

· What is your solution?

 Plastic roads

· How will it work?

Using recycled plastic bottles and crushed up asphalt

· Why will it work?

It uses plastic bottles to make roads that have better protection from potholes and flooding

· How can you test this solution?

By looking at data from real roads.

This tech is already being used in Australia, Indonesia, India, the United Kingdom, the United States 

· Can you re-design and make it better?

It could be redesigned in a way to make it cheaper and faster to make and faster to install. Another way could be to make them “less efficient” using more plastic. 

Recycling Part 2

 Consult your parents and any experts you know.

· What is causing the problem?

  • People using plastic that is unnecessary 

· Why do we need to solve it?

  •  So people can experience living in a clean environment

· Have others tried to solve it? How 

  • Yes others have tried to solve it , by using recyclable products

· How is this solved in different countries?

  • Sweden converts waste into energy.

· Can we combine or improve existing solutions?

  •    By putting more recycling bins in public places.  
  •    By adding more ‘containers for change’ in more places for better convenience.

Recycling Part 3

· What are the key words?

  • Recycling
  • Plastic
  • Reducing wastage

· What exactly needs to be solved?

  • Excessive wastage not being made proper use of to do with recycling

· What needs to be changed?

  • Kinds of plastics we use
  • The way we dispose of plastics
  • The amount of waste we produce

· How does this problem affect people in the community?

  • Plastic buildup in the community
  • Can cause people to become unhappy due to their dirty surroundings
  • Peoples health is at risk as they could be breathing in toxic plastic breakaways
  • Uneffective recycling of plastics can begin to affect organisms in the food chain from miniature species like plankton to much larger species like whales

· What is the context?

  • The context is that people are struggling with recycling plastics and that they need to be taught and figure out better ways to utilise recycling and how to reduce wastage in the community

What are the different components of this problem?

  • People are using too much plastic
  • People don’t know how to reduce their plastic use
  • People don’t know how to recycle

 – Explain the problem in your own words?

  • Recycling of plastics became significant in the world in the 1970’s

Minimum Age of Responsibility #3

Laws we would change

Safe Injection Rooms

In Richmond, Melbourne they are trialing rooms in which you can safely inject heroin. Richmond is the epicentre of Melbournes heroin problem with many people dying in it’s streets, the safe rooms aim to take the danger out of doing the drugs however i think that the rules surrounding the rooms are too soft. 

The changes that i would make to the rooms are; first of all to offer rehab to all of the users of the rooms, this would  help to hopefully decrease the number of users of the safe rooms. secondly i would put a limit on how much you would be allowed to use the rooms to two hours a week, this would hopefully limit the dependence of users of the safe rooms. Thirdly i would put strict consequences in place if you broke rules or became violent to other users, these rules would be; a good behavior bond, a years worth of rehab and suspended use from the safe rooms. 

I think that these changes will decrease the violence of these safe rooms and i think that the users will become less dependent on the safe injecting rooms and the heroin that they provide. 

Age of Responsibility

Crimes committed by under ten year olds

If a child commits a crime before the age of 10, their parents/guardians can be fined and they may have to do community service or attend correctional classes. If the child continues to offend, a government official ‘nanny’ can be sent to live in the household, to help around the house, care for the child and ensure they obey the law. However, children under ten can not be sent to juvenile detention centers.

If a child under 10 commits a crime, they must be proven in court that they knew what they were doing when they did it. If the crime is an infraction they can choose not to do this and accept the consequences instead. The court hearing must be friendly and positive.

They face either

  1. A fine towards the guardians and a warning to the child for infractions — eg.  trespass, walking an unleashed dog, littering
  2. Community service for misdemeanors — eg. theft, vandalism, destruction of property
  3. Guardians must attend parenting classes and the child is sent to correctional classes for felonies — eg. animal cruelty, murder
  4. For repeated offenses, a government official ‘nanny’ is sent to live with/visit daily and take care of the child (and help the guardians) for an amount of time

Crimes do not go on the offenders’ record, unless they are a misdemeanor or higher and repeated more than three times with less than three years apart.

Reasons for this

Children are greatly impacted by their environment and the way they are brought up. Studies have shown the way a child is raised has extreme impacts on their personality, mental health, and how they behave. This is why parents/guardians should take partial of the responsibility, for not teaching the child it is wrong, during a time when the guardian is the child’s highest influence.

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Additionally, being punished harshly or being separated from society in juvenile detention centers, with other offenders, has been shown to make children more likely to rebel and commit crimes in the future. The earlier a child enters the justice system, the more likely they are to have repeat interactions with it. It isolates children from the rest of the world when they are still learning how to be a part of it, not giving them a chance to improve and show they have learnt to be better.

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However, if those interactions with the justice system were positive, the child would learn and have support rather than be damaged. (This follows the idea that support is better than fear when it comes to teaching/ruling/parenting.) The Royal Commission into Protection and Detention of Children in the Northern Territory found that the NT youth detention system was likely to leave many children and young people more damaged when they leave than when they entered the system. By sending a child to correctional classes they can learn why what they did was wrong, to stop them repeating their behavior in the future, while still maintaining a relationship with their family and a connection to the outside world. 

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Mental Health issues for Men

Males, especially older males, in our community experience mental health issues at the same rate as females, yet their presentation for help in any form is considerably lower. What steps can be taken to encourage men to seek assistance?

what are the social and emotional barriers to seeking help for men and improving their lives?
It’s a bit of a generalisation but it still holds true today, men tend to be OK with their mates but are often reluctant to seek help from professionals. It’s still a challenge for most blokes to even go to the doctors, yet alone seek help with emotional issues from a professional. As you can imagine, that reluctance was even more prevalent in the military culture. Men are raised with the expectation to be strong and not need help, but there are times when all of us could do with someone to talk to and share the challenges that life throws at us.
There’s definitely more reluctance from men to open up and share their thoughts. More traditional and formal helping environments tend to make this even more difficult. That means people and organisations providing help for men need to be creative about how they engage with differing groups of people. A service that wants to engage men needs to understand and target their client group with imagination and respect.

How do you encourage men to open up? What techniques have you found to be effective?
Traditional methods of counselling don’t always work for people. We’ve found that simple things like kicking a ball around, having a coffee or talking to them during a car journey is less confrontational, helps ease the tension and allows guys to talk more freely. 
It’s all about respectful partnership engagement. The person is the expert on themselves and what is working and failing, not the social worker or counsellor. There is always the temptation to ‘rescue’ and try to fix or solve the problem immediately – the key is to resist that impulse and hear them out first. Recognise where they’d rather be and try to meet them on their patch, both physically and emotionally. Having a ‘safe space’ is a vitally important concept. Building trust enough to allow free exchange usually take a couple of engagements, so social workers need to utilise a range of approaches according to what’s presented.
Sometimes it is necessary to sit with their distress for a while to help them find the underlying cause of things. 

Though men don’t commonly seek out professional help, they do other things in their daily lives to try to help themselves including (but not limited to):

1.    Eating healthily (54.2% do this regularly)

2.   Keeping Busy (50.1%) 

3.   Exercise (44.9%)

To encourage men to open up to professionals who could really help them, it could be worth using some casual techniques men have used already such as the ones listed above. Psychologists could come up with more informal courses they could do for men who don’t want their mental health to be a big deal or seen by others (mostly by themselves) as a weakness.

Like women, most men with mental health issues are offered “gender neutral” services. While this may seem fair and equal, gender neutral services can fail to take into account the different needs of men and women. It is important that services take into account the needs for the individual they are helping, and expironment to see what 



What do you see as the most common issue for men in today’s world?
Anger blocking access to support and help for men. Anger against a person, against ‘the system’, against the helping organisation and the like. It acts as a barrier that prevents them from getting help, that presents more often in men. Anger is part of a natural defence mechanism that projects frustrations out onto the world around them and is part of the ‘fight or flight’ instinct that we all have. If people have trauma, they can be locked in a cycle of fight or flight. In general, boys tend to act out this out more and that continues into manhood, especially if they have no one to talk to. They are the people I worry the most about.
Developing resilience and mindfulness is crucial, to find more productive ways to understand ourselves and paths to deal with our issues. Developing assertiveness and managing anger greatly helps these efforts.

According to Associate Professor Richard Fletcher, at the University of Newcastle, “dads’ mental health impacts children and mums too. Lack of partner support is a risk factor for maternal depression and research shows that a child of a depressed father has three times the rate of behaviour problems and twice the chance of a psychiatric diagnosis at seven years of age.”


What are some of your tips to encourage people to seek help for men?
– Trust is the most important thing. Find someone you trust that will give you honest feedback, not someone who just tells you what you want to hear or reaffirms where you are stuck.
– If you’ve got an issue, explore it with someone – a mate, family or consider talking to a professional. There are lots of different ways to seek help nowadays – face to face, phone or online chat or a variety of helplines. Find what works best and do it on your terms. Find your safe space and comfort zone with an individual or organisation who will work at your pace.
– Also recognise that having troubles is very normal – 1 in 4 Australians experiences some type of mental health issue in the course of their lives and all sorts of life events can act as triggers for the likes of anxiety and depression.

One reason men die earlier than women is that men are less likely to seek preventive care or medical treatment. This is true even for male physicians, who are less likely than female physicians to seek medical treatment for their own health conditions, “Mental and physical health are interrelated in men,” Dr Englar-Carson told Psychiatry Advisor.

Male Alexithymia
Normative Male Alexithymia is a very clinical sounding term that describes when men have tremendous difficulty putting their emotional experience into words. This can often put relationships on the ice because generally women need to talk about emotions to feel a connection, and men often “just can’t go there.”
All 3 experts agree: men are not acculturated to talk about their feelings. Most are raised on adages such as “big boys don’t cry,” or “man up.” They are encouraged to be stoic and to “tough it out,” Dr Ogrodniczuk said. Expressing feelings is sometimes seen as the women’s domain. 
Men taught to repress their feelings often underplay their experiences, leaving clinicians in the dark as to what is actually happening for them. A meta-analysis of studies that included both clinical and nonclinical populations found that men consistently exhibited higher levels of alexithymia than women. 
“Male depression is typically masked,” Dr Englar-Carlson said. “The man will suffer silently and say, ‘I’m fine.’ ”



No Stereotypes
“In our field, we do not talk about ‘masculinity’ but, rather, about ‘masculinities.’ How each man experiences and enacts masculinity will be different,” Dr Englar-Carlson emphasized.
Many factors intersect to form sense of masculinity, including gender orientation and cultural and socioeconomic background. For example, “a working class Italian-American from Chicago will have a different masculine identity than an undocumented immigrant in Southern California,” Dr Englar-Carlson said. 
There are also generational differences, he pointed out. “My son, age 13, has a different orientation of what it means to be a man than I do at age 46.”

Male vs Female Practitioners
Do male patients relate better to female or to male therapists? 
Findings of studies are mixed. A series of 3 studies found that male participants with traditional “masculine” views preferred a male physician via beliefs that men make more competent physicians than women. However, these men who scored higher on masculinity measures were more likely to disclose their symptoms to a female physician. 
“Many men may be more comfortable talking about sexual issues to women, maybe because they are afraid a male would judge them or they would be in competition,” observed Dr Myers, who is the author of Why Physicians Die by Suicide.
Some men who have been sexually abused are afraid of being judged by male therapists but may feel more affinity with women. “However, with increased focus on male sexual abuse through media stories, this trend might be changing,” he said.
He cautioned female therapists to be cognizant of potential erotic transference. “If the therapist has not received training how to detect and handle this issue, it could compromise the therapy and even the therapist’s safety, especially if the patient has a history of impulsivity or sexual assault,” he warned.
But in the case of “average, high-functioning males, a female psychiatrist should be comfortable working with positive transference onto her,” and it becomes part of the therapeutic process.

The Role of the Media in Encouraging Men to Seek Help for Depression or Anxiety –

The media has a strong impact on the public’s perceptions of mental illness.
Men report a lower rate of mental health problems compared to women, and they seek help at a much lower rate.
Promoting help-seeking amongst men for depression and anxiety is fundamental to
improving men’s mental health.
The language and focus of a story about depression and anxiety has a real
impact on men with mental illness.
Men can be encouraged to seek help for depression and anxiety through the use of
media campaigns that work to increase symptom recognition, reduce stigma and encourage help-seeking.

Key findings
– The proportion of men contacting helplines was lower than that of women, although the proportion of male contacts appears to have increased in recent years.
– Of the ten stories analysed, four were associated with increased contact with helplines by men in the two weeks following the story. When the observation period was expanded to three weeks, one further story was also associated with increased contacts to helplines by men. One story resulted in increased contacts only in the first week following the story. One story had a negative impact on contacts to helplines by men and three stories showed no change in contacts.
– The four stories that had the most consistently positive impact on contacts to helplines (at two and three weeks post-story) were differentiated from the other stories by being stories about hope and recovery that featured men who were either revered or could be easily identified with.
– The increase in contacts was somewhat consistent across the four helplines, even though the four helplines differ in their intended target client (i.e., men only, all Australians, those with mental illness, those with depression or anxiety) and even though two of the stories featured campaigns that were promoting only one of the helplines.


This study demonstrates the significant positive impact that newsprint media can have on the help-seeking behaviours of men with depression and/or anxiety. The findings reconfirm the need for articles to provide accurate representations of depression and anxiety, while maintaining an optimistic focus on recovery. The use of publicly revered role models appears to be particularly useful in promoting help-seeking.



Inspirational Mens Mental Health Quotes - Etuttor

Providing Help: Domestic Violence Part 4

Our solution to domestic violence towards women follows a item used in every household worldwide. This solution follows a switch that is to be used when a women is experiencing domestic violence in her household or has recently experienced it. They will be cheap switches in a room of every household that will show police/emergency services the location of the switch that has been used, when it was used and would be able to go there and help the person being victim to domestic violence. It may also be good if police or emergency services try to keep active with the community and engage with them as it may allow and encourage women experiencing domestic violence as they may feel more accepted if they have a good relationship with local police etc.

Providing Help: Domestic Violence Part 1

I believe that mobile phones are bad because a person who is victim to domestic violence can have their phone taken away from them or broken by the violent aggressive partner so they need other options. An item such as a switch throughout the house that a partner may not know about could be useful to a woman facing domestic violence. If a woman has experienced domestic violence in the past, she could go to a store and buy a switch that she can put in her home for her to use and so when she uses it, it would send a ping to a big network which tells police about the location. The switch is to be used when a woman or man is facing domestic violence and has experienced it around that time. This would allow police to have a chance to catch a person inflicting domestic violence to a partner etc. and give a chance to a woman experiencing domestic violence a chance to speak up about her life and what has been happening. Some statistics show how Domestic Violence leads to over 30,000 deaths worldwide all year. 1 in 6 women and 1 in 16 men in Australia have experienced domestic violence throughout their lives. From 2016-2017, 17 adults were hospitalized from domestic violence from a current or ex partner. This refers to how our switch can change thousands of lives. It can save thousands of people and give them an opportunity to change their lives for the better in a domestic violence situation.