Drugs in Sport 5

Why are drugs in sport an issue?

Using performance enhancing drugs are banned in all sports because it can give athletes unfair advantages over other athletes and sport is all about having a fair game. The issue of drugs in sport has been around for quite a while and the first ever professional drug tests in sport was conducted in 1966 at the European championships (Soccer), then shortly after at the next summer and winter Olympics. Another issue is that drugs are being used in sport to help athletes cope with mental health issues such as anxiety or depression which is not a healthy way of looking after their mental health. 

How are drugs tested?

The urine, blood, or saliva samples are sent to a lab and the test results reported to the governing body of the particular sport. If drugs are not found in the test sample, the result is negative. If substances are found, the result is positive and you may be banned or suspended from your sport.

Benefits of drug testing

  • creating a deterrent for athletes who may consider to use drugs to cheat in sport 
  • promoting drug-free sport that incorporates fair play 
  • promoting safety in sport 
  • promoting equity in sport 
  • rewarding athletes for their ability, training and efforts 
  •  protects athletes’ reputations 

What drugs are Taken?

-anabolic steroids (containing testosterone) – these are the most commonly used performance-enhancing drugs in Australia 

-peptides and hormones (such as human growth hormone) 

-beta-2 agonists (medicine used for asthma control) 

-glucocorticoids (medicine used for asthma control) 

-diuretics (medicine used for weight loss) 

-illicit drugs, including 

-stimulants (such as amphetamines, cocaine and MDMA (ecstasy) 

-narcotics (such as heroin, morphine and pethidine) 

-cannabinoids (such as marijuana and hashish) 

Why should athletes be tested for drugs?

Drug testing is the process of collecting samples of your blood, urine, or saliva to check for chemicals that are either illegal or banned in a sport. Drug testing in sports helps: Prevent cheating in sports. Keep a level playing field for athletes. 

Our Solution

A solution to make drug testing more fair is that professionals can test athletes using more than on drug test method. Our idea is that they test the hair for the drugs that have been used further in the past and then also a saliva test for more immediate and to also detect more recent drug use. This method of testing for drugs will make sure that athletes are tested thoroughly and acurately.

 

Another solution that our group was able to come up with was that when athletes come to competions they are required to be screened by security for any drugs on them or in there belongings before they are approved to enter the competion and compete. It will make sure that atheletes dont have drugs available to them during the copetition making testing more accurate and fair.

Why people use drugs in sport?

 Using drugs improves in game performance in sport. Drugs in sport may lead to an athlete being banned. But it may also harm their general health. Sporting authorities have banned many drugs and other substances, not just because they might give an athlete an unfair advantage but also because of the wider health risks. 

Why are some drugs and substances banned in sports?

So-called ‘performance-enhancing drugs’ or ‘performance and image-enhancing drugs’ are banned in sports because they could give a sportsperson an unfair advantage over other competitors. Using drugs in sport undermines values like fair play and teamwork. When sportspeople use drugs, they not only might damage their own health, they also give sport a bad reputation and set a poor example to others. 

What health damage can performance drugs cause?

Drugs that are banned in sport can cause several types of health problem. Their effects will depend on the type of drug; how much and how often it’s taken; and who is taking it. 

Steroids – make muscles bigger and stronger but cause :

  • a risk of heart attack, stroke, and effect on heart size 
  • an increased risk of liver and cardiovascular disease suicidal and aggressive thoughts.  

Human Growth Hormone – hGH (Human Growth Hormone) may make muscles and bones stronger and recover faster. But it is not only your muscles that get bigger. hGH use may lead to:  

  • a protruding forehead, brow, skull, and jaw – which can’t be reversed  
  • an enlarged heart that can result in high blood pressure and 
    heart failure  
  • damage to livers, thyroid and vision  
  • bigger joints leading to arthritis. 

 Narcotics – Narcotics, like heroin and morphine may help you forget about the pain. But can cause:  

  • a weakened immune system  
  • a decreased heart rate and  
  • suppressed respiratory system  
  • loss in balance, coordination  
  • and concentration  
  • gastrointestinal problems like  
  • vomiting and constipation  
  • narcotics are also highly addictive –  
  • your body and mind quickly become dependent on them. 

 Masking Agents – Some athletes try to cheat the system by using diuretics and other substances to cover-up the signs of using 

banned substances.  

The side effects can affect your ability to compete and train and may lead to:  

  • dizziness or light headiness  
  • low blood pressure  
  • loss of coordination and balance  
  • development of cardiac disorders 

 Stimulants – Stimulants are used to heighten the competitive edge and are often found in supplements like pre-workouts. These can result in:  

  • involuntary shaking or trembling  
  • coordination and balance  
  • problems  
  • anxiety and aggression  
  • an increased and irregular  
  • heart rate  
  • heart attack or stroke. 

DRUGS IN SPORT

Summary of drugs in sport

Drugs in sport have been around for decades, they are most commonly found in high performance sports.

The use of drugs in sport needs to be stamped out. No good comes from cheating, it creates bad atmosphere among team mates, it means selection trials for big events are rigged, it brings a criminal element into sport. Most importantly it damages the bodies of athletes. Performance enhancing drugs can lead to athletes masking pain from injury & damaging joints & muscles for life. The use of hormone based drugs can lead athletes to become infertile & they can never have children of their own. Drugs can lead to addiction, damage to organs and altered mental state.

To help athletes avoid the pathway to drugs we need to cut supply with clear reporting pathways and police involvement. Sporting bodies need to have a tough testing protocol and research needs to be ongoing to identify new masking agents and drugs. KEEP SPORT CLEAN!

Why Athletes use drugs?

  • To help recover from injury fast 
  • To beat other athletes & gain selection in events 
  • Peer pressure 
  • Pressure from coaches, team onwards
  • Corrupt government insisting athletes do, winning world events was that aar important.
  • In error, described drugs that are banned when ill and the doctor was unaware it was a restricted drug.
  • To be faster 
  • To Lose weight 
  • To gain size and muscle tone 
  • Fear of Failure

What is the problem 

Doping, defined as use of drugs or other substances for performance enhancement, has become a very important topic and has been happening in almost every sport and has been discovered in athletes of all ages at every level of competition. People use doping to gain muscles, recover from an injury, increasing body recovery capacity after training, increasing muscle mass and strength, decreasing fat tissue, increasing endurance. Not only is this seen as a form of cheating and unfair to other people competing it that sport, it can also affect the person health for example some of the effects can lead to liver and heart problems, prostate problems and impotence and blood cancer.

 
 What is causing the problem
 
  • Drugs coming into Australia letting it be available for people to use 
  • pressure to succeed or win at any cost 
  • pressure to succeed as a nation 
  • pressure from the media and the public to be successful 
  • pressure to be successful in order to gain sponsorship
  • sport is a short career and performers need to make as much money as possible to set themselves up for life
  • improve physical condition (speed and strength) to gain an advantage 
  • boost confidence 
  • reduce recovery time from injury 
  • the belief that other competitors are taking drugs, so without drugs they will not be able to compete equally 
  • Greed to be the best you can be. 
 
 

How does this problem affect people in the community? ·

  • makes it unfair for other people who are also competing 
  • makes young people think its ok to take drugs when doing sport
  • Using drugs in sport undermines values like fair play and teamwork
  • drugs in sport also give the specific sport a bad reputation and set a poor example to others.

 How can we make the testing more accurate to ensure that athletes are on an even playing field

Drug testing in sport is a very important topic in today’s world is a hot topic among today’s sporting community and one of the most important things to consider when is its accuracy as the results can effect the results of this type of testing can affect the players reputation and there lively hood the that we can improve the  testing of thees athletes is to directly test the the samples taken against the drugs themselves to get an accurate reading about the drugs being taken.

 

Why do we need to solve it?

  • Makes a equal and fair playing field for all competitors
  • Effects there reputation/career
  • Effects there family, friends, coaches, team mates
  • Effects there mental health and wellbeing 
  • Effects there body and its functions 

 What is your solution?

 

How will it work? Why will it work? 

 

 

How can you test this solution?We can test the solution by testing people that have drugs in there system that were carefully put into the people by doctors. With the permission of the person having the drug being put in them, doctors put the device into action testing the patient with the controlled drug in them. this is how we test the solution.

 

Performance Enhancing Drugs

Olympic symbols - Wikipedia
Drugs in sport – how can we make the testing more accurate to ensure that athletes are on an even playing field?

Drug consumption by amateur and professional athletes is a major issue. In 2016, more than 1.81% of athletes tested by the world anti-doping agency had overdosed on drugs. In order to effectively control this growing problem, consistent drug tests have become common in every sport. By taking banned performance drugs it risks peoples place in their team and also gives the team and coach a bad name. One person’s action can lead to the team having a major spiral.

Why do athletes turn to performance enhancing drugs?

A lot of athletes feel a lot of pressure to perform their best for the coaching staff, fans and their team, because of this pressure to meet the expectations of people the athletes turn to performance enhancing drugs. This is why doping tests are being performed to prevent athletes from taking banned substances that can tamper with their health.

When athletes lose their form, they are criticised due to their failures, which leads to stress and anxiety. Many athletes take steroids so as to enhance their performance. However, they might not go for such drugs if they know about the consequences of this decision.

Recreational drugs such as marijuana and cocaine are performance-reducing drugs that negatively affect their physical as well as mental health. While marijuana is now legalised in many states in the US, it is not suitable for professional athletes.

Through doping tests, it’s possible to determine whether or not an athlete takes illegal drugs, after which sports authorities can charge the culprit with bans and fines.

Professional and amateur athletes are expected to compete with others in a fair way and abide by the rules of the game. But, when an athlete consumes steroids to enhance their performance through illegal means, it is no longer a fair playing field for all competing in the game.

Drug testing techniques were introduced in sports to promote fair play. It ensures that no athlete enjoys an unfair advantage over other participants who are trying to win the game without implementing unfair tactics.

What testing is currently in place for seeing who is taking performance enhancing drugs?

Although testing procedures are now in place to deter steroid use among professional and Olympic athletes, new designer drugs constantly become available that can escape detection and put athletes willing to cheat one step ahead of testing efforts. To detect early use of designer steroids and provide more accurate baseline standards for each athlete, testing laboratories store data from each drug testing sample. These samples are then used as reference points for future testing, thereby eliminating the possibility that a person tests positive simply because he or she has naturally elevated levels of testosterone when compared to the general population.

How can we improve this testing to make it more accurate?

These widely used color tests are simple to use, but researchers and legal experts know the results can be questionable. Some reagents turn color when exposed not only to a particular illegal drug, but also to over-the-counter medications and a host of other substances. Also, some illegal drugs, such as BZP and MDMA (commonly referred to as ecstasy), are not detectable with color tests. The researchers developed a fluorometer by making a small black box with a 3-D printer. They then used a low-cost cold cathode lamp (to provide the fluorometer’s excitation light) and powered the system with a rechargeable lithium ion battery. The unit allows investigators to identify powders and other substances using a paper test strip soaked in copper iodide. Certain classes of drugs react with the copper by giving off a fluorescent light signature unique to the drug.

Performance-Enhancing Drugs: A Cheat Sheet - ABC News

What are some side-effects of taking performance enhancing drugs?

At low doses, stimulants can lead to increased perspiration, shaking, inability to focus, and sleep loss, as well as low appetite and dehydration. In higher doses, stimulants can also lead to more severe health effects, such as rapid heart rate and high blood pressure.

 What are the statistics for drug use in sports worldwide?

In one anonymous survey of several thousand world-class amateur athletes, up to 57 percent admitted to using performance-enhancing drugs in the past year, according to a study published in the journal Sports Medicine.

Why does this need to stop?

Having some athletes taking performance enhancing drugs makes it unfair in others participating in the sport and therefore no one is on the same even playing field. Not only does it affect the player taking the drugs but it can have negative effect on the other players in the team and the coach.

What is our solution?

Can earwax give reliable proof of drug use?

Possibly. Forensic science is always innovating in its search for effective methods. Typically, forensic analysis for neuropsychiatric drugs comes from blood and urine samples. But some drugs have such a short half-life that traditional tests aren’t always accurate, while other testing methods—saliva, sweat, hair and nails—can prove unreliable, with a high risk of contamination and a difficult collection process.

In the search for better methods, forensic scientists are now looking at the use of cerumen, commonly called “earwax.” Earwax is secreted from ceruminous glands, essentially a type of sweat gland. A broad range of drugs including ETOH (alcohol), amphetamines, cocaine, methadone, along with psychotropic and antiepileptic (anti-seizure) drugs are found in sweat, often in higher concentrations than in blood. The logic follows that if these substances can be seen in sweat, then they should also show up in cerumen.

In a Brazilian study, cerumen samples were obtained from 17 individuals that used antiepileptic and antipsychotic drugs. Many of the drugs tested were found in major concentrations in the sampled cerumen. Phenytoin was detected and quantified in an individual who had stopped using the drug two months prior to the study. Cerumen testing is promising not only for evaluating recent drug use, but also for drug use from previous months.

Familiarity with forensic science and its technological advances isn’t only for the scientific community, but also for the legal community. Trending issues in substance abuse testing are valuable information for both prosecuting and defense attorneys. Earwax may just become part of every criminal attorney’s vernacular.

Do Audiologists Remove Ear Wax?

Sport and Drugs

Drugs in sport

Drugs in sport

Question: How can we make the testing more accurate to ensure that athletes are on an even playing field?

Example of doping cases in sport

Tyson Gay, Track and Field

In 2013 Tyson Gay tested positive for an anabolic steroid which was a banned substance. Before Tyson Gay tested positive he was one of the biggest stars in sprinting history. He had won a silver medal in the 2012 Summer Olympics. He also had the second-fastest time in the 100-meter dash with a 9.69-second run in 2009 at the Shanghai Golden Grand Prix. Due to him testing positive he was banned for a year and lost his silver medal.

 

Lance Armstrong, Cycling

From 1999 – 2005 Lance Armstrong won the Tour de France seven times in a row, he also won a bronze medal in the 2000 Summer Olympics for the individual men’s time trials. In January 2013 he admitted in a now-famous interview with Oprah Winfrey that he had been using performance-enhancing drugs. Due to the Armstrong lost $75 million in endorsements as many sponsors dropped him and was stripped of all seven of his wins from the Tour de France.

Why do athletes take drugs?:​

Athletes may be driven to use drugs to enhance their athletic performance, cope with the stress of high-pressure situations such as playoffs or finals, manage sports-related pain, recover more quickly from injuries, or even to self-treat mental health issues. 

This causes the problem of making drugs in a sport seen as normal behaviour and leads to sportspeople given unfair advantages and disadvantages to others playing against them, from their own choices.  

Also, the problem is being helped by the lack of accurate testing for athletes and taking too much time to get results so by the time they do the player has already competed and performed well. Leaving the competition confused and puzzled with what to do. 

As well as the problem is caused by some unreliable results from outdated and old ways of finding people using drugs.  

Effects and risks of certain drugs:

Anabolic Steroids: Increase testosterone & epitestosterone improving muscle strength & endurance. There are huge numbers of these drugs and are listed by the World Anti-Doping Agency WADA. 

Peptide Hormones: Increase bulk, strength and oxygen-carrying red blood cells. 

Androstenedione: Allows athletes to train harder and recover quickly. 

Human Growth Hormone: Used to improve muscle mass and performance. 

Erythropoietin: Increases red blood cell production and allows greater oxygen flow and endurance. 

Diuretics: Increase urine production and are banned because they decrease water retention & this decreases athletes’ weight which makes them faster. These drugs also urine production lowers the concentration of banned drugs making them harder to detect. 

Masking agents: Make drug tests throw false-negative results, masking an athlete’s drug use. 

Narcotics: Reduce pain and allow athletes to continue training after an injury. 

Creatine: Muscle maker more ATP, this produces short-term bursts of power in sports like sprinting for weightlifting. 

Stimulants: Increase blood flow & heart rate. (Include amphetamines, pseudoephedrine, and cocaine) 

Beta-Blockers: Slow heart rate, helps shooters and archers to perform better.

Blood Doping: Injection of one’s blood taken just prior to an event to increase red blood cell count. Improves oxygen levels and athletic endurance. 

How drugs affect the community:

By taking performance enhancing drugs athletes may act strangely and maybe agressively towards people which may straign their relationships. It may also affect people in the community as a sport is a global thing and when others see athletes taking/using drugs it represents a different picture of that sport and changing people in the community mind.

Discover

Why are drugs banned?:

As to make it fair for all athletes when competing as they are on a even playing field. It is also for the wellbeing of the athletes as they are large side effects from drugs especially performance enhancing drugs.

What effect are drugs having on sport?:

Drugs can have lasting effects on the brain and body. Using drugs often compromises judgment and physical abilities, and make a person unable to perform in a variety of contexts. Sports and injuries go hand and hand, but what sports do not account for are or tolerate are drugs and substance abuse. 

Why do we need to solve it?:

We need to solve it as to be able to make sure that all games of sport are fair and equal. We also need to solve it for the wellbeing of athletes as drugs can have a negative effect on them for the rest of their lives and also their friends, family and coaches around them. 

How is this solved in other countries?:

  • Present it that using drugs in sport is cheating 
  • Focus on nutrition 
  • Be very careful with supplements  
  • Warn them not to risk their careers  
  • They could never play their dream sports again 
  • Never refuse a test 
  • Avoid social drugs and parties 
  • Inform your team/squad  

Why do athletes use performance-enhancing drugs?:

  • To help recover from injuries faster. 
  • To beat other athletes & gain selection in events. 
  • Peer Pressure. 
  • Pressure from coaches, teams and owners. 
  • Corrupt governments insisting athletes do to almost guarantee winning at world events. 
  • In error, prescribed drugs that are banned when ill and the doctor was unaware it was a restricted drug. 
  • To be faster. 
  • To lose weight. 
  • To gain size and muscle tone. 
  • Fear of failure. 

How to help athletes after they are caught or choose to stop taking the drugs :

  • Medical help, make sure any symptoms or related illness is treated. 
  • Counselling athletes may choose to lose their career, may feel guilt, be angry & need to be supported. 
  • Investigate how they got the drugs and cut off the pathway so other athletes can’t be involved. 
  • Discuss the factors that led the athlete down the path and use that to educate and counsel others. 
  • Get athletes involved in helping others at risk or in the same position. Education programs for young athletes. 

How to stop drug use in sport:

  • Stricter penalties for athletes. 
  • Clear channels for reporting suppliers, athletes, coaches & doctors. Reporting to police and appropriate sporting bodies. 
  • Clear lists of the drugs and masking agents that are not acceptable in the sport, lower risk of accidentally taking the wrong thing when sick. 
  • Education on the harm & long long term impacts on athletes of drug use. 
  • Strict drug testing with random tests so people can’t plan to be absent. 
  • a stronger effort by law enforcement to catch & prosecute pressuring or supplying drugs to athletes. E.G coaches, team manager & team doctor. 

How we currently test for drugs

Collection. 

  1. Make sure all the paperwork is filled out the best you can before testing. You can prefill things like location, Company, Contact details. Just not Names, times temperatures.  
  2. Make sure a list of people is provided and that they have the appropriated heads up about what is happening. (They need to bring Photo ID and proof of medications they are taking. Remove all jackets prior to going into testing area). Can be done by the paperwork person to speed things up. 
  3. Make sure toilet area is secure WAY before the start time. I.e. Blue loo in toilet, cistern tapped down and tap over taps so they cannot access water. 
  4. Two testers is ideal No1. checking all the patients details and identification and No2. doing the actual testing. 

Transport 

  1. Make sure an appropriate number of eskies are there to allow for quick batch up. Ice bricks should be frozen the day prior.
  2. Make sure each sample is ticked off on the transport Chain of Custody form.
  3. Secure the eskies and transport immediately to the NATA testing laboratory.

Laboratory 

  1. Firstly, to be very efficient the laboratory should have been contracted so they are able to make sure they have enough staff and reagents to fulfil the testing requirements from that site.  Also enough Data entry staff because if you cant enter the forms you cant even begin to get results out. 
  2. Make sure the day before you have topped up the machines. It takes a long time to fill reagents Calibrate and control them (Definitely do this the day before for all tested analytes). And do a dummy run to ensure communication between the testing machine and the Lab Information System (LIS).
  3. If things are rushed mistakes are always made. Work steadily at pace as a re-run can take three times as long.

Obviously In a perfect world newer machines always make work go faster. Example: Olympus machines can do 480 tests per hour, but  new ones can do up to 5700 samples an hour.  

New electronic Pipettes will help with less carryover and more accuracy. More sensitive LC/MS/MS also would be a major bonus as it will be able to pick up more analytes at lower concentrations, therefore a higher hit rate.

Solutions:

1. Get the government to invest a larger portion of taxes towards drug testing so that new  machinery can be created and old machinery can be rebuilt better and more accurate than before. 

2. Test all athletes before their events and make sure that they are supervised to decrease the chances of them cheating.

3. Make hair testing more frequent as it detects drugs in the system for a period of 90 days

References

By Emily, Olivia, Thomas & Peter

Drugs in Sport – 1

The world anti-doping agency is an independent body formed by the international Olympic committee in 1999 with the responsibility of fighting drug-taking in sport and ensuring impartiality in drug testing. They also conduct drug testing, provides assistance to countries’ own anti-doping programmes and funds research

The problem is that the use of drugs in sport make the playing field unfair and unequal for other athletes who don’t include drugs into their sporting career. However, even with athletes using illegal drugs the testing system and regulations need to change. 

We need to find a solution because the use of drugs in sport undermines the values of fair play.

Athletes that have doped

What we found

At what level of competition should drug testing be introduced?

All drugs testing now days in done at a professional level, leaving recreational and amateur competitions open to drug use. It is not currently possible or cost effective to conduct drug tests everyone at every level of sport.  However, there is less motivation to use drugs to gain a competitive advantage they will usually be used for recreational reason. Keeping this in mind, there is still a responsibility for sporting clubs to not let people use drugs and/or not let people play who have used drugs recently. Clubs must do this to promote safety and drug free sports

What are the pros and cons of drug testing?

Drug testing promotes equity in sport and helps to keep cheaters who use banned substances away from the sport. It promotes athlete health and safety while attempting to maintain fair play in sport. However, drugs testing does not always catch cheaters and technology needs to be updated frequently. New methods for new drugs need to be created to catch those people who try to use them. A false positive can ruin an innocent athletes career if leaked to the media, (false positives are rare and barely happen).

Reason behind drug tests

  • Although it will, the test is not about catching cheating athletes
  • To promote fair play and making sport safe
  • “play true” is the tagline for The World Anti-Doping Agency – promote drug free sport

Benefits

  • Creates a discouragement for athletes who may consider using drugs to cheat in sport
  • Promotes drug-free sport that integrates fair play
  • Promotes safety in sport
  • Promotes fairness in sport
  • Protects athlete reputations

Limitations

  • Not all drugs can be tested for – new drugs are frequently being created
  • New prohibited lists are developed each year which athletes need to know and follow as they will be held responsible

World Anti-Doping Agency - The Doping Control Process for Athletes

What drugs are used and how in sport?

There are several drugs that an athlete can boost his or her performance. Many drugs are used in sport, some used illegally. Some of the drugs include:

Stimulants: Stimulants are used to boost bodily functions such as heart rate and brain activity.        Examples; cocaine, adrafinil

Anabolic steroids: This category of steroids stimulates muscle growth and can allow athletes to train harder as well as recover from injuries or a game or race.                                                              Examples: drostanolone, tetrahydrogestrinone (THG)

Narcotics: these are painkillers used to control pain from injuries or allows athletes to train for longer. if they are being used to ignore an injury, then they can do further damage to the body.          Examples; Morphine and heroin

Peptide hormones: naturally occurring substances that circulate in the blood and can increase muscle growth                                                                                                                                                            Examples; human growth hormone (HGH) and insulin

Beta2 agonists: The kind of drug found in asthma inhalers, when inhaled they relax the airways allowing more oxygen to reach the blood. If injected, they are thought to have effects similar to the anabolic steroids, but this does not appear to have been proven.                                            Examples; salbutamol, terbutaline.  

Our Ideas

  • Have a more efficient way to test
  • Provide more testing  – twice before and after each game or twice before and after each game and training season
  • Have a better and up to date technology as well as testing system
  • Constantly talk more about the negatives of drug use in sport – in schools and sport clubs

Our solution

Our solution isn’t focused on coming up with a new testing method but changing and creating a new set of rules that would be set for all athletes around the world.We think that if any illegal substance is found that a stricter penalty should be put in place but if a banned substance is found then there should be a particular amount that is allowed to be present in the body.

Firstly we think that the WADA should create a set of international testing standards that would apply to all sports in all countries. Our solution is similar to the Australian Alcohol driving limit which allows a certain amount of alcohol to be in your system in a period of time. When an athlete is tested like normal and an illegal drug is found positive to be in the body we think the penalty should be stricter.However, if an athlete is tested and a banned substance for example found in a legal supplement is found positive in the body and it is under the agreed substance limit than the athlete would still be able to compete. 

Even though we aren’t changing the testing method we think that will create an even playing field for all athletes that compete. It would even allow the athletes that may not intentionally dope to still compete in their desired sport and continue their sporting career.

Reference

Jackson, D. (n.d.). Benefits and limitations of drug testing. HSC PDHPE. Retrieved from https://www.pdhpe.net/improving-performance/what-ethical-issues-are-related-to-improving-performance/use-of-drugs/benefits-and-limitations-of-drug-testing/

Bbc – ethics – sporting ethics: Types. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/sport/debate/types_1.shtml

Asada, A. S. A. A. -. (2014). Testing | australian sports anti-doping authority – asada. Retrieved from https://www.asada.gov.au/anti-doping-programmes/testing

Computers Taking Over The Roles Of Humans

What’s the main problem?

Computers and technology are increasingly capable of carrying out more and more sophisticated work that once took many people a long time to do.

What do we need to do?

With an increasing amount of jobs once occupied by people now being carried out by computers and robots, what should the government and/or corporations do to ensure we can all live a fulfilling life where our needs are met, when ‘work’ starts to look very different, or disappears completely?

What are some solutions that we can apply to stop this from happening?

  • Make the cost of producing and maintaining AI very expensive 

  • Just accept the fact that AI are superior and the way of the future. 

  • Put a limit on how many AI a company can use. Small Business use little big business can use a little more. 

    • Less money for hiring robots 

    • Get the AI to do the simplest jobs so they don’t get smart. 

    • Increase the price for building AI 

    • Don’t program the AI to be super smart just enough to do their job 

    • Become jobless and accept it. Learn better skills so you become employed and if you can’t you don’t deserve to live. 

    • The government doesn’t care about poor people. If poor people lose their jobs the government doesn’t care 

    • AI can only be made from eco-friendly stuff, so it becomes harder to be mass produced 

    • AI can’t be mass produce. Regulations    

    • Limitations on what AI can do, they can’t do complex tasks 

    • Peoplwhose jobs are taken the government helps them get another one. They train them. 

    • Let other countries test it before we do and if it works out well, we introduce more AI and vice versa 

    • Learn how-to live-in harmony with things that are better than you. 

    • Don’t give AI self-intelligence 

    • Asking others for opinions to find a solution   

    • Increase regulations for automation  

    • Escape Earth when it’s too late because of technology going to take over our lives and the world  

    • Give up to our robotic overlords 

    • If you lose your job, try find another way to make money such as making candles or etc. and sell it. Improvise, Adapt, Overcome 

One solution that will work best is to increase the price to hire and build AI robots. If we increase the prices for the building process and for actually obtaining robots to work at a company will be a great amount of money. Companies will pay a lot of money to get these AI robots which could impact them greatly and then in the end might bring them down.

 

If an AI robot takes your job and you can’t find another a way to solve this is to make your own products and sell them. For example you can make candles and then sell them either singular or in groups. This is one way to keep making money without an actual job so you ca still eat, drink and still help with your family. You have to improvise, adapt ad overcome.

Want to find more information? Check out this website for more details?

https://www.forbes.com/sites/blakemorgan/2018/09/05/robots-will-take-our-jobs-and-we-need-a-plan-4-scenarios-for-the-future/?sh=3d609ba96db4

By Chey

Computers taking over

Two solutions relating to jobs and income.

  • UBI – Universal basic income
  • Movement of most people to scientific and creative prospects.

First Solution – UBI (Universal Basic Income)

Mapped: Where Basic Income Has Been Tested Worldwide

Ways which solve the solution are:

$1000 in your bank account every fortnight , Covered by the government and taxpayers, The money comes from the taxation of automation heavy companies, The amount is completely independent of any earnings, and, the Gerald Huff Fund for Humanity is a Section of non-profit organization that was created in 2019 they use Universal Basic Income as a solution to the huge threat of technological unemployment. A solution presented by this company is every month, around $1,000 is deposited into your bank account because you are a citizen. This income is independent of every other source of income and guarantees you a monthly starting salary above the poverty line for the rest of your life. This would provide food and a sustainable amount to pay off for example debt, taxes and rent.

Second Solution – People can move into scientific studies and creative work. While a small amount of people can still do work on the robots. 

Reproducing scientific studies: A Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval

Ways which solve the solution are:

People can move into scientific studies and creative work. While a small amount of people can still do work on the robots. 

 

A Brand New Political System

Since the beginning of all human societies, political systems have been created for the sheer purpose of maintaining order by using the resources which they have including the citizens of their country. As human evolution has continued, multiple systems adapting to their current situations have formed having either representatives or leading people/parties taking over their countries. Communism, monarchy, socialism, dictatorship, democracy;  all have shaped our modern world. The purpose of these government systems over time have become defected due to ulterior motives and the horrible treatment of people. The issues in modern government systems of trust, adds connotative language of the word politics as deceitful and untrustworthy. Being asked the question, How do we “Take the politics out of politics”? Developing a new efficient and effective structure of elected local, state and federal government for the 21st Century? , we came up with a system consisting of the addition of certain roles in government and an additional house to fix the problems of politics and replace it with its intended purpose.

Federal Government

The House of Representatives

We have decided to combine the House of Representatives and Senate to form one house. There are quotas for parties so that all states are equally represented no matter their population. This will ensure that all states will have similar say in matters and we can consider how new laws will affect certain states. The House of Anthropoi and House of Representatives would balance each other much like the original Senate. Their purpose proposing, discussing and voting upon new laws and bills. Australian  citizens will still vote parties into the House and have equal power to the House of Anthropoi. To be a candidate party for the House of Representatives, they must meet the following criteria:

  • A maximum of seventy people can participate in each party
  • A minimum of 5 people is needed from each state and territory
  • A maximum of 15 people from each state and territory is allowed to become a candidate for the federal election.

The House of Anthropoi

For years we have held onto the idea of democracy being an elected government, but perhaps it is time to let go of that notion and explore the idea of a randomly selected government, or a sortition government.   

The idea was first conceptualised in ancient Greece.  The basis was that: “Democracy arose from the idea that those who are equal in any respect are equal absolutely. All are alike free, therefore they claim that all are free absolutely… The next is when the democrats, on the grounds that they are all equal, claim equal participation in everything.” (see above video).

For our new model of a government we have chosen to adapt the idea of a sortition government and implement it in a way that maximised the benefits and minimised the downsides. To do this we created a parliamentary house we named The House of Anthropoi or the people’s house.  The people’s house sits at the end of the law-making process in order to prevent laws from being made that do not help the average Australian.  This way in which we have implemented the concept of a sortition government means that the expertise and experience necessary in making laws is retained, but with the added bonus of having insight from a group of people who accurately represent the needs of the population.  The people’s house would also add a level of trust which is severely lacking in Australian politics.  We believe the people’s house could improve modern democracy and help to make better laws for the good of the whole nation. 

70 people are chosen at random from the electoral roll that aren’t already politicians in the House of Representatives or State representatives (see state representative votes) and are face-timed in their scheduled meetings over a week in which they will either approve or deny the making of a law or idea on society’s behalf.  7 people are also chosen through a process which will be later identified and represent their state and their best interests. The jobs which the people may commit are taken over by qualified, experienced others to fulfill their tasks in the job. The businesses are paid a certain amount of compensation for the following inconveniences. 

State Government

The State Government is considered quite efficient and well structured within the current democratic system of Australia. Although with the wide-scale changes made to the Federal Government, certain ministers and elections must change in order to suit these needs in the adapted system.

Minister of Public Relations

To create a more equal system and a more direct democracy additional roles within the state government must be created in order to maintain that resemblance of trust between the public community and the government.

The role of the Minister of Public Relations would be a highly important role in the state government having certain expectations of themselves such as:

  • Enabling local governments to relate towards state government giving them a more valued in role in modern society
  • Questioning their leader of the party’s decision in concern to the people
  • The ability to sit in the House of Anthropoi to take the viewpoints and opinions in and relate it to their current work
As people of society, we have an absolute responsibility to respect and contribute to our society and I feel as the Minister of Public Relations is initiated then this responsibility is then elaborated and can better assist society.

Minister of Temporary Career Establishment

Due to the House of Anthropoi, a new governing role is needed in each state to support the unemployed workers in their temporary jobs. 

Their purpose is to maintain order within the system of temporary job replacement and government assistance leave through:

  •  Appointing positions based on qualifications and experience.
  • Communicating with society to view their opinions on the matter
  • Pioneering change in the temporary career system with approval from the Houses especially the House of Anthropoi 

Premier Votes and State Representative Votes

Votes for the premier would remain the same like stated in the beside video on local and state elections. Although to determine the 7 state representatives, an extra voting poll will be added to the public to vote for a second role. 

This person will then go on to represent the state’s best interests in the House of Anthropoi. The purpose of the state representative is to give equal treatment and benefits to each state and territory.

If a person is running for the premier of the country they then are cancelled out for running for state representative and vice versa.

Local Government

Local government stays pretty much the same with a higher determination of responsibilities. People from local government are allowed to run for state representative and elected by the public; then is placed in the state government board of decision in The House of Anthropoi.  Local government meetings that are important would be live-streamed to the public.

Communications between State and Local Governments

Communications between state and local governments would increase because we don’t have enough trust in our government or other governments and in doing this the trust would increase with both the governments and the people with the governments.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the addition of the House of Anthropoi and other roles within state government to accommodate the purpose and emerging problems of the federal system of government, helps the public have more of a say in the government and therefore more trust is place in. We believe that all people deserve a voice and that everyone should imbed trust into this already great country helping further develop this newly created direct democracy allowing it to meet the standards of a government’s purpose. This then takes out the negative emotional context of politics and reverts it too what it was meant to be, taking the politics out of politics. We are all people so we should all get a voice.

Politics

Our Question:
How do we “Take the politics out of politics”? Developing a new efficient and effective structure of elected local, state and federal government for the 21st Century?

OUR PROBLEM

What are the key words?
-politics
-federal, local, state
-electedWhat can you do with a politics degree? | Times Higher Education (THE)-efficient

What needs to be changed? 

  • The structure of the political system
  • Election – opportunity for candidates – possible different voting systems
  • Wider representation (especially for minority communities, youth) 
  • Young people in politics
  • The transparency of the government (we can increase transparency by posting gov spending online, 

How does this problem affect people in the community? 

  • Politics is deeply entwined with human rights and the economy, both which effect everybody under that government 
  • In Australian politics the two main parties have different stands 

What politics affects:

Indigenous communities have a history of being not only blatantly ignored but discriminated against by the Australian government. Poor policies made by our government mean that people living in remote indigenous communities often experience difficulty in getting basic housing and obtaining other community services, furthermore future environmental issues will only increase this without interference by the government. Politicians and government officials fail to accommodate for indigenous communities by allowing mining companies to destroy ancient and sacred indigenous sites, such as Rio Tinto’s iron ore blast which destroyed a cave of significant cultural importance in the Pilbara region of Western Australia in May 2020. Moreover resources that discrete indigenous communities rely on such as natural water supplies continue to be depleted or polluted by fracking, something Scott Morrison encourages. In conclusion politicians and government officials continue to discriminate against indigenous communities as they refuse to accommodate for them and ignore their land rights. 

Mining Firm Plans to Destroy Indigenous Australian Sites, Despite Outcry -  The New York Times

Fracking is a concept that Australia is greatly divided on. In November 2020 the temporary ban on fracking was lifted in WA. The concerns around fracking are usually about the environmental impacts, fracking causes methane to pollute the air increasing the damages of climate change, fracking uses large amounts of water, leaks chemicals into local water supplies and ruins the quality of soil surrounding to the point where it cannot support life. However traditional owners and landowners have the right to say no to fracking on their land for the first time. Most Politian’s and government officials, such as Scott Morrison, are pro-fracking standing with large companies instead of the environment and some individuals.

What is causing the problem?

The problem is the politics is in politics which means the two opposing parties (labor and liberal) try to make the other party’s look bad instead of focusing on the issues regarding the community (mainly labor doing this).

Labor vs Liberal: How each party's policies will affect your financial  future - Centrawealth

 

Why do we need to solve it? 

We need to solve it and redesign the political system at all levels in order to improve the livelihoods of people living under the rules of these current systems, who, at the moment are not being held up by the system and instead being crushed by it. A reform of the system means that not only will these people’s needs be given heavier consideration, but their wants will be fulfilled to the fullest extent.

Have others tried to solve it? How?

There are many different political systems around the world, each with their own unique characteristics. Australia gives its population a voice in decision making while some other countries give their population no say in who makes decisions.    

How is this solved in different countries?

North Korea asserts complete power and control over its citizens not giving them a say and having a dictator.

China has a group of people that are basically dictators as they decide what happens with the country again not giving them a say. This happens under the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)China's Leader To Meet Kim Jong Un In North Korea : NPR

Solution

Local, State and Federal Solutions:

Local: 

  • Have random locals talk about their opinion on certain matters.
  • Build a stronger community around local governments
  • Make Local government more known to the locals
  • Local government should be represented by a range of people from different backgrounds to form different opinions
  • People don’t care enough about this lowest level of government so the quality the government provides is not going to be the best. There should be more of a reason for locals to engage in this level of government.

State:

  • Combine current system with new ideas, 
  • The Need for Reform (tax), too many taxes, a need for fairness, too complicated changed environment
  • WA’s health care system is higher ranking compared to other states in other countries but still has certain aspects that are not performing as effectively as they could be, which can affect the health care of people. 

WA’s state system may be working but is it efficient? WA’s healthcare system, along with it’s transparency are just the start of a long list of the system’s downfalls. WA’s health care system is higher ranking compared to others, yet still does not perform to its greatest capacity, this directly affects the people who live under this system. 

Federal:

  • Lack of accountability, blame can be passed on to state governments/reallocated responsibilities and finance so that each government was clearly responsible for particular functions and had adequate sources of funding to fulfil those responsibilities  
  • Contradictory policies in different parts of Australia  
  • Unhealthy rivalry between the states, not sharing resources in the most beneficial way 

Australia’s form of government is federalism, this is ideal when dealing with globalisation however the way in which we operate our federal, state and local government is deeply flawed. Although our federal government is flexible in supporting local and states governments needs this system creates many issues between local, state and federal governments and between the states.  

 

One issue faced between federal and state governments is the lack of accountability as blame can easily be passed between these two tiers of government. This can create an environment of confusion for individuals and lead to no accountability. The solution we propose is relocated responsibilities so that each government’s functions and responsibilities are clear. Furthermore, this allows each government and section of government to have adequate funding to fulfil those responsibilities. Clear communication is fundamental for this solution as is individuals continuing to demand accountability.  

Secondly, the federal government supports an unhealthy rivalry between the states. This rivalry can result in not sharing resources in the most beneficial way, this is due to poor communication and limited regulation on behalf of the federal government. The solution we propose is to have better regulation made by the federal government in relation to the budget, sharing the money and resources where it is needed.   

Thirdly, due to poor communication between the different tiers of government there are many contradictory policies in different parts of Australia. Although this can result in better policies for different circumstances this also causes a lack of unity and fairness and a sense of confusion between Australians. The solution we propose is that all humanitarian policies must be checked by the federal government before being in use to ensure equity throughout the states. 

GTO: Group Therapy Online

Men’s Mental Health


Veterans:

What’s already being done for veterans?

A lot is already being done for veterans of the ADF, somethings that are already being done are that there are GP’s available for them to seek help from and being able to get the beginning of a diagnosis as well as a mental health plan or referral, different medication is available to help them such as anti-depressants and medication that can help them get vitamins and minerals into their body while they’re trying to get their eating schedule back to normal and they also have the option to have a comprehensive veteran health check once they have left their service. Some other options that are available to them are the mental health supports that the Australian Defence Force provides to its personnel including phycologists and a number of veteran organisations who also provide counsellors. There are multiple services dedicated purely to helping veterans, some of them are; Open Arms which provides peer support, treatment programs and workshops, suicide prevention and resilience training and crisis accommodation support as well as being able to help veterans to recognise the signs of a mental illness before they get a diagnosis and to help them understand the support that they can receive and provide any other support that they may need, and another service that can help is the Department of Veterans Affairs which use a white card. The white card allows the holder to receive career coaching, phycological assistance, helping them to accept when they are forced to leave their position, fitness and training and for current serving members, secure them a job for when they leave the army. Originally in order to get a white card you had to be a veteran and your reason for leaving the ADF has to be accepted before you can receive the white card so that you will be able to seek the mental and physical assistance that will help your reason for leaving had to be accepted by a council but has now been changed to something that any veteran can access no matter their reason for leaving the ADF. The DVA also encourages members of the ADF to accept all the help that is available to them and to take all of the free services that the army and government offers them. On top of these services there are also others out there that can help them deal with their trauma along with any other mental health illnesses they may be dealing with and help them return to civilian life with tasks such as getting back to a normal daily routine, normal mindset or to help them get a job outside of the ADF. Another resource that is available is that there are different videos of veterans talking about their journey to recovery as well as what they went through and these videos are of people of different genders as well as different ages which will be different depending on the war that they were fighting in but they all talk about how important it is to get help and what getting help actually did for them. Even though there are many solutions and services available, many veterans still find it very hard and confronting to ask for help and this often leads to them to suffering for very long amounts of time before receiving any help

Why wouldn’t veterans want help?

There are many reasons why veterans don’t want to get help and some of them are that they feel that they won’t receive any support from their family and friends when they get a diagnosis when in reality they are shocked to find that everyone just wants to help them and give them the most support that they can and because they often think that if they can survive a war they will be able to deal with what they are going through so they bottle up their emotions but they eventually burst out and cause them to do something that they will regret such as commit suicide which is one of the most important reasons for veterans to seek help. Another reason why men won’t get help is because they feel as if they will be judged by others with their diagnosis or because they are asking for help as it is often seen as weak for men to ask for help due to toxic masculinity and this leads to them feeling embarrassed and ashamed that they have to rely on others for help when in reality they are so strong to have the courage to ask for help. It’s also very hard for people to find someone that they will be comfortable to talk to especially if they’ve had bad experiences with past therapists and most of the time they don’t even want to talk to their family about it so it’s hard for them to talk to a stranger about what they’ve been through. The biggest reason for veterans to refuse help is because they are angry at the system and feel as if they have to fight it. This is because if a member has been discharged, especially medically discharged they feel as if they’ve been betrayed by the ADF and refuse the help that is provided to them so that they can rebel and refuse to have anything to do with the people that forced them to leave what they loved. All of these reasons mean that the veterans have to suffer longer than is necessary and can often lead to them making decisions that they will regret, especially if they have enough of what they are going though and just want it to be over because they don’t see how it could get better

 

The impact that occurs when veterans don’t get help

When veterans don’t get help they often turn to drinking and taking drugs as a way that they can escape reality as well as trying to escape the memories that they have constantly relive if they are experiencing PTSD which is something else that can happen, them having to constantly live with the reminders of what they went through especially if they have survivors guilt and have to relive the deaths of the one’s that they lost. Due to what their loved one’s have to go through the veteran’s family often have to get help as well, especially if they don’t know how to deal with the knowledge of what they are going through and have to try to help them to the best of their ability even if it eventually causes them harm as well. The greatest problem that comes with veterans not getting help is that they will often end up committing suicide because they bottle up their emotions until it becomes too much for them to deal with or because they don’t see the light at the end of the very dark tunnel that they’re in. Due to suicide attempts veterans also usually end up being hospitalised in military hospital facilities until it is seen that they will be safe to go back into society and because of this they will still have dark days after but it’s so much better to have a few dark days than to have every day being a dark day or them making such a huge decision to end their life. Due to veterans not receiving help the suicide levels of veterans and current members in the ADF has gone up in 2020 which is a huge problem that the government is trying to figure out what has happened and how they can deal with it and they have figured that it is most likely to do with the war crimes committed in Afghanistan recently and all the backlash that has come due to these current events so the government is trying to figure out how they can help veterans and bring down this number significantly and make sure that something like this never happens again

Statistics:

     –       85% of the ADF is men
       1 in 5 ADF members experience mental health illnesses due to their work
       49% of the ADF were interviewed in 2010 and; 17.9% sought help for stress, emotional, mental health or family problems, 27.6% were concerned that reporting a mental disorder might result in being treated differently, 26.9% feared that their career might be harmed and 36.9% stated ‘the highest rated barrier to seeking help was concern it would reduce deployability’
       Between 2001 and 2016, 373 Australian veterans took their lives
       Male veterans under 30 had a suicide rate more than twice the national average for men the same age which lead to a royal commission into veteran suicide
       17.7% of transitioned ADF personnel had experienced PTSD compared to 8.7% still serving in the ADF full-time along with other common mental health conditions such as depression (11.2%), anxiety disorders (5.4%), agoraphobia (11.9%) and social phobia (11%), all estimated to be higher than rates in the general public
       Rates of suicidality were more than double for those who had transitioned out of full-time ADF service compared to those still serving in the ADF full-time (21.7% vs 8.8%) and ten times greater than the Australian community
       About 75% of veterans who reported they had mental health concerns in the DVA study had sought out and received assistance at some point from a GP or mental health professional

Our solution:

Many veterans find it really helpful to find out that others are going through similar things to them and for them to find out that it’s ok to ask for help and find out from others in similar situations to them how they got help and what getting help actually did for them. With this information in mind our solution is to get veterans to make videos of themselves talking about their experiences with mental health and talk about how important it is to get help and how they were affected by getting help. This is an idea that is already being used but these videos haven’t been shared to many people so our idea is that this video can be shared to currently serving ADF members as well as veterans so that they can realise that they should get help no matter how big or small their problem might be which will hopefully lead them to seek help when they see that it’s necessary 

The video below is of Nick Caldwell who is an Australian Army veteran who is talking about his experiences of recovery with mental health illnesses due to his time serving and how important it is to ask for help based on his experiences 

(We don’t have this video yet as this is a very sensitive topic for Nick and will be up as soon as he is ready to share it with others)


https://www.dva.gov.au/health-and-treatment/injury-or-health-treatments/mental-health-care/mental-health-support-services

https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/BriefingBook44p/MilitaryHealth

https://theconversation.com/veterans-have-poorer-mental-health-than-australians-overall-we-could-be-serving-them-better-119525

https://www1.racgp.org.au/newsgp/clinical/young-returning-veterans-experiencing-high-risk-of


We would also like to say a huge thank you to Karyn Hinder from Working Spirit for her help answering our questions about the mental health of veterans based on both her knowledge and personal experiences, Sandra Šeman-Bourke for her help with knowledge about current help that those in the ADF can access as well as other useful information about the army and Nick Caldwell from The Mill Gym who was kind enough to provide us a video to use for our solution as well as sharing his experiences of recovery and how important it is to ask for help

Covid19:

 

During the global pandemic COVID19  there has been noticeable rises in the use of crisis lines and mental health services. For instense calls to lifeline from the 10th of august to the 6th of september were up 15.3 percent. Beyond blue calls were up 38.6%. The cause for this rise in data isnt clear but a reason could be an increase in men around the world becoming or feeling lonely. Another reason could be that they couldnt reach out to get help in person because of strict restrictions. Many men may also be feeling stressed or worried about their family members such as older parents or people with autoimmune disorders. 

How can they find help?

Many men during the COVID19 pandemic felt that they must bottle up there emotions because they cannot see someone face to face. We can help these men by promoting life lines more often and making them more accessible. We can also encourage men to reach out more often. Or they could download or new free app that is coming out soon. Our app provides scheduled fortnightly group therapy sessions on zoom and a journal feature. Our app shows men that they are not alone and lets them talk to other people who are struggling with some of the same issues they may be going such anxiety, trauma, depression and grief. 

Our Solution:

Our solution in helping older men seek help starts with a simple app we created. Our app is called Group Therapy Online (GTO) which includes a free group therapy session each fortnight, and an optional 1 on 1 session with a professional. This easy working app allows users to journal their ideas and feeling whenever, have access to 1 on 1 online therapists and phycologists, as well as group therapy which can allow men to relate with each other. These features will help men feel a sense of belonging and helps them to understand that they are not alone. This solution makes it easy for men to seek help during this unprecedented time as it is easy to use and provides cheap/free therapy, with the option to zoom call or audio call.

seeking help: